## 7. The Mathematical Behaviour of the ZPE
## 7.1 Behaviour of Atomic Quantities With TimeFinally, the behaviour pattern can be found for those constants linked with the ZPE as in (2A), (6A), (16A), (20A), in section 3, and (26A) in section 5. Taking their inverse, and ignoring the ripple on
If we define each of these quantities in terms of their current value, so this equals unity, then lightspeed,
We notice the redshift term there. But astronomers who want to treat the redshift as a velocity phenomena demand that
Now equation (54) distinctly relates redshifts,
In this form, we have both
Equation (56) can be verified by inserting this expression for However, as already noted above, equation (55) begins to break down at redshifts greater than about 0.8. The brightness of Type Ia supernovae in distant galaxies indicate that something is amiss with (55). This is usually overcome by those favouring the velocity interpretation by stating that dark energy is forcing the universe to expand at an ever increasing rate. But the equation describing the behavior of the cosmos on that approach becomes unwieldy with too many parameters. One therefore suspects that the expansion scenario is not the correct way to go, especially in light of the quantized redshift. But (55) is nonetheless a fair approximation to the redshift
Orbital time, ## 7.2 Mathematical Description of Atomic BehaviorEquation (57) delineates the behaviour over time of those atomic quantities associated with the ZPE. Therefore, linking (57) and (53) describes the behaviour of these 6 quantities,
This is graphed in Figure 7. This equation, and the observational data and physics behind it, provides a logical framework for the theoretical proposals of a high initial value for lightspeed at the inception of the cosmos [51-53]. It also provides support for the approach of those who suggested a decline in Note that this equation also describes the behavior of the redshift with time in a way that has nothing to do with either the expansion of space-time or the motion of galaxies. Instead it is more like (55) in which distance is independent of velocities. Importantly, one of the terms in this derivation has a degree of liberty that allows fine tuning to data from
The final term of unity in (59) is included since this gives T = 1, the terms within the square brackets in (59) total 2.5708. Since the universe is about 10 to 14 billion atomic years old, and light has traveled 10 to 14 billion light years, then the numerical value of K must approximate to K = 4 x 109.## 7.3 ConclusionThe evidence presented here indicates there is a link between five physical quantities and the Zero Point Energy. These quantities are Planck’s constant,
[25] B. Setterfield, D. Dzimano, ‘The Redshift and the Zero Point Energy’ Go to: first page, section 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or appendix 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or tables, or figures 1-7, or figure 8 or reference page. |