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Sons of God, Sons of men

2015: A question and Barry's answer

as referenced from Bible Gateway, with deep thanks to that site for their work and availability

Sons of God

NIV (note: the current NIV quotes have often used "children of God" for the original "sons of God"

  1. Genesis 6:2
    The sons of God saw that the daughters of men were beautiful, and they married any of them they chose.
    Genesis 6:1-3 (in Context) Genesis 6 (Whole Chapter)
  2. Genesis 6:4
    The Nephilim were on the earth in those days—and also afterward—when the sons of God went to the daughters of men and had children by them. They were the heroes of old, men of renown.
    Genesis 6:3-5 (in Context) Genesis 6 (Whole Chapter)
  3. Matthew 5:9
    Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called sons of God.
    Matthew 5:8-10 (in Context) Matthew 5 (Whole Chapter)
  4. Romans 8:14
    because those who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God.
    Romans 8:13-15 (in Context) Romans 8 (Whole Chapter)
  5. Romans 8:19
    The creation waits in eager expectation for the sons of God to be revealed.
    Romans 8:18-20 (in Context) Romans 8 (Whole Chapter)
  6. Galatians 3:26
    [ Sons of God] You are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus,
    Galatians 3:25-27 (in Context) Galatians 3 (Whole Chapter)


  1. Genesis 6:2
    That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose.
    Genesis 6:1-3 (in Context) Genesis 6 (Whole Chapter)
  2. Genesis 6:4
    There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown.
    Genesis 6:3-5 (in Context) Genesis 6 (Whole Chapter)
  3. Job 1:6
    Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them.
    Job 1:5-7 (in Context) Job 1 (Whole Chapter)
  4. Job 2:1
    Again there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them to present himself before the LORD.
    Job 2:1-3 (in Context) Job 2 (Whole Chapter)
  5. Job 38:7
    When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy?
    Job 38:6-8 (in Context) Job 38 (Whole Chapter)
  6. John 1:12
    But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name:
    John 1:11-13 (in Context) John 1 (Whole Chapter)
  7. Romans 8:14
    For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God.
    Romans 8:13-15 (in Context) Romans 8 (Whole Chapter)
  8. Romans 8:19
    For the earnest expectation of the creature waiteth for the manifestation of the sons of God.
    Romans 8:18-20 (in Context) Romans 8 (Whole Chapter)
  9. Philippians 2:15
    That ye may be blameless and harmless, the sons of God, without rebuke, in the midst of a crooked and perverse nation, among whom ye shine as lights in the world;
    Philippians 2:14-16 (in Context) Philippians 2 (Whole Chapter)
  10. 1 John 3:1
    Behold, what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called the sons of God: therefore the world knoweth us not, because it knew him not.
    1 John 3:1-3 (in Context) 1 John 3 (Whole Chapter)

Sons of Men


  1. Psalm 4:2
    O ye sons of men, how long will ye turn my glory into shame? how long will ye love vanity, and seek after leasing? Selah.
    Psalm 4:1-3 (in Context) Psalm 4 (Whole Chapter)
  2. Psalm 31:19
    Oh how great is thy goodness, which thou hast laid up for them that fear thee; which thou hast wrought for them that trust in thee before the sons of men!
    Psalm 31:18-20 (in Context) Psalm 31 (Whole Chapter)
  3. Psalm 33:13
    The LORD looketh from heaven; he beholdeth all the sons of men.
    Psalm 33:12-14 (in Context) Psalm 33 (Whole Chapter)
  4. Psalm 57:4
    My soul is among lions: and I lie even among them that are set on fire, even the sons of men, whose teeth are spears and arrows, and their tongue a sharp sword.
    Psalm 57:3-5 (in Context) Psalm 57 (Whole Chapter)
  5. Psalm 58:1
    Do ye indeed speak righteousness, O congregation? do ye judge uprightly, O ye sons of men?
    Psalm 58:1-3 (in Context) Psalm 58 (Whole Chapter)
  6. Psalm 145:12
    To make known to the sons of men his mighty acts, and the glorious majesty of his kingdom.
    Psalm 145:11-13 (in Context) Psalm 145 (Whole Chapter)
  7. Proverbs 8:31
    Rejoicing in the habitable part of his earth; and my delights were with the sons of men.
    Proverbs 8:30-32 (in Context) Proverbs 8 (Whole Chapter)
  8. Ecclesiastes 2:3
    I sought in mine heart to give myself unto wine, yet acquainting mine heart with wisdom; and to lay hold on folly, till I might see what was that good for the sons of men, which they should do under the heaven all the days of their life.
    Ecclesiastes 2:2-4 (in Context) Ecclesiastes 2 (Whole Chapter)
  9. Ecclesiastes 2:8
    I gathered me also silver and gold, and the peculiar treasure of kings and of the provinces: I gat me men singers and women singers, and the delights of the sons of men, as musical instruments, and that of all sorts.
    Ecclesiastes 2:7-9 (in Context) Ecclesiastes 2 (Whole Chapter)
  10. Ecclesiastes 3:10
    I have seen the travail, which God hath given to the sons of men to be exercised in it.
    Ecclesiastes 3:9-11 (in Context) Ecclesiastes 3 (Whole Chapter)


  1. Job 35:8
    Your wickedness affects only a man like yourself, and your righteousness only the sons of men.
    Job 35:7-9 (in Context) Job 35 (Whole Chapter)
  2. Psalm 11:4
    The LORD is in his holy temple; the LORD is on his heavenly throne. He observes the sons of men; his eyes examine them.
    Psalm 11:3-5 (in Context) Psalm 11 (Whole Chapter)
  3. Psalm 14:2
    The LORD looks down from heaven on the sons of men to see if there are any who understand, any who seek God.
    Psalm 14:1-3 (in Context) Psalm 14 (Whole Chapter)
  4. Psalm 53:2
    God looks down from heaven on the sons of men to see if there are any who understand, any who seek God.
    Psalm 53:1-3 (in Context) Psalm 53 (Whole Chapter)
  5. Psalm 90:3
    You turn men back to dust, saying, "Return to dust, O sons of men."
    Psalm 90:2-4 (in Context) Psalm 90 (Whole Chapter)
  6. Isaiah 51:12
    "I, even I, am he who comforts you. Who are you that you fear mortal men, the sons of men, who are but grass,
    Isaiah 51:11-13 (in Context) Isaiah 51 (Whole Chapter)

NOTE: Aside from the KJV referencing Sons of God as angels in Job, all other references are to believing men. Thus, it might be said that if the widest possible sense is used, "Sons of God" refers to the faithful, the believers, be they men or angels. Because of this, it is impossible for Genesis 6:1 to mean that angels had sex with women or took any they chose for wives. Angels who might have done this would not be called Sons of God.

For the most part, "sons of men" -- ben adam -- is a reference to unbelievers/people of the world. What is interesting is that Jesus' chosen title for Himself was "Son of Man." And it was He who carried all our sins to the cross.

2015: A question

Perhaps the Sons of God definition cannot be applied to recalcitrant Sethites as they themselves are not walking in the Spirit but denying, resisting or even defying by their willful disobedience? More than that it would be protracted and multi-generational rebellion. I am having  trouble with the Sethites theory; always have. Need more in depth study. Your interlinear exegisis in your papers really does shed some much needed insights.

Let me know if you have any opinion on this matter of biblical exegesis: 


Barry: Thank you for your e-mail; it is appreciated.

I have had a look at the URL that you sent, and I do have an opinion on it as I had taught on this topic while back in Australia many years ago.

To begin, the author is placing too much reliance on the English text and/or the Masoretic for the book of Job. The first part of his argument comes from Job where he is discussing the "sons of God." Those words in Job only appear in the Masoretic text and it muddies the waters somewhat. The original Alexandrian Septuagint simply has the word "angels". The author then makes  the mistake of equating demonic beings with the sons of God. In fact, they are the followers of Lucifer, Satan, not of God. Remember the Scriptural definition is that "as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God." Since these beings were not being led by the Spirit of God, they could not scripturally be called the sons of God. (Romans 8:14).

As far as the Nephilim or giants are concerned and their relationship to the sons of God, I draw your attention to our discussion of this in the Genesis Study on Genesis 6.

Having said that, there is another issue that needs to be dealt with. The comment in the book of Peter refers to an influx of demonic beings into Tartaros at the time of the Flood. This was not because these demons had sex with humans as some claim. Rather, it is because these demons took possession of humans who allowed them in, rather like the Gadarene demoniac in the Gospels. In actually inhabiting humans this way, they left their first estate and doomed themselves. Humans are designed to receive the Holy Spirit to indwell them. These demons were usurping the function of the Holy Spirit for their own purposes and so were condemned. The point here is that it is only once the being inhabited by them dies (or that they are cast out as in the case of the Gadarene demoniac) that they are cast into the abyss. In the case of the demoniac, Jesus cast the demons into the swine who then ran off the cliff and were drowned, thereby sending them into the Abyss. So when the Flood process killed all the population, there was a huge influx of demons that had previously inhabited those individuals. So following basic Scriptural principles, there was still an influx of demons into the Abyss at the Flood

I could say more, but I think that gives you enough information to chew over for the moment. If you have further questions, please feel free to get back to me.