Weekly Bible Studies, part 3 -- Noah's tablet and the Deluge
Weekly Bible Studies, beginning
Weekly bible Studies, part 2
Weekly Bible Studies, part 3
September 11, 2009 -- Genesis 6:1-9a
September 25, 2009 -- Genesis 6:9b – 22
October 2, 2009 -- The Geology connected to Noah's Flood
October 9, 2009 -- Genesis 7
October 16 -- no Bible study
October 23, 2009 -- Genesis 8:1-7
November 6, 2009: Genesis 8:8 - 22
December 4, 2009 -- Genesis 9:1-17
December 18, 2009 -- Genesis 9:18-29
Friday, September 11, 2009 -- Genesis 6:1-9a
Noah’s tablet actually starts in Genesis 5:1b: “When God created man, he made him in the likeness of God” (NIV) Since chapter 5 deals with the generation years, we will be dealing with chapter five when we do chapter 11. Going straight to chapter 6, then, we will go from there to the close of Noah’s tablet.
Genesis 6: 1-2
NIV – When men began to increase in number on the earth and daughters were born to them, the sons of God saw that the daughters of men were beautiful, and they married any of them they chose.
KJV – And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, that the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose.
Alexandrian LXX – And it came to pass when men began to be numerous upon the earth, and daughters were born to them, that the sons of God having seen the daughters of men that they were beautiful, took to themselves wives of all whom they chose.
Hebrew: And it was that began men to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born. To see the sons of God the daughters of men, that they were good and they took for themselves wives from all those whom they chose.
- When men BEGAN to increase in number….this started happening very early in history!
- Who were the 'sons of God'? We must let Bible explain Bible. We looked up EVERY time this phrase was used in both the King James and New International versions:
KJV – Job 1:6 (Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them.); Job 2:1 (Again there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them to present himself before the LORD.); Job 38:7 (When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy?) The Alexandrian and NIV use ‘angels’ each of these three times. The Hebrew uses ‘sons of God.’ It should be noted that whichever version you prefer, Satan is considered separate from them. He is not associated with either the ‘angels’ or ‘sons of God’ in these passages.
NIV – Matthew 5:9 (Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called sons of God.) The King James uses ‘children of God’ here. (the Greek ‘teknon’ can be ‘child, son, or daughter’).
KJV – John 1:12 (But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name). The NIV uses ‘children.’
both – Romans 8:14 (NIV -- because those who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God. KJV -- For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God.); Romans 8:19 (NIV -- The creation waits in eager expectation for the sons of God to be revealed. KJV -- For the earnest expectation of the creature waiteth for the manifestation of the sons of God.)
NIV – Galatians 3:26 (You are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus,); the KJV uses ‘children’
KJV – Philippians 2:15 (That ye may be blameless and harmless, the sons of God, without rebuke, in the midst of a crooked and perverse nation, among whom ye shine as lights in the world); the NIV uses ‘children.’
KJV – 1 John 3:1 (Behold, what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called the sons of God: therefore the world knoweth us not, because it knew him not.); the NIV uses ‘children.’
Thus, after the two verses in Genesis 6, with the exception of Job’s passages, in which angels can be used (and which do not include Satan with them), depending on the language being used, EVERY other time ‘sons of God is used, it refers to believers in Christ; therefore those believers before the time of the cross would be believers in the Promise of God, whose fulfillment was Christ.
Letting Bible explain Bible, then, the sons of God in Genesis 6:1 and 4 is referring to men who were believers in the Promise of God, the Messiah, the Redeemer to come.
3. Who were the daughters of men? The phrase ‘daughters of men’ is only used these two times in the Bible. But it is being used in contradistinction to ‘sons of God.’ Therefore it means unbelieving women who were daughters of unbelieving men. The fact that this is the opening of the chapter which is describing the violence and evil which had saturated the world of that time indicates this was not a good thing! In the New Testament, Paul warns us in 2 Corinthians 6:4 “Do not be yoked together with unbelievers. For what do righteousness and wickedness have in common? Or what fellowship can light have with darkness?”
4. “all which they chose” or “any they chose” seems to indicate that the women had no say in the matter. As we can see with Lamech, bigamy at least was accepted, and, if bigamy, very possibly polygamy. However, God gave Adam one wife, with the command that they should join and become united as one.
NIV – then the LORD said, ‘My Spirit will not contend with man forever, for he is mortal; his days will be a hundred and twenty years.’
KJV – And the LORD said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years.
Alexandrian LXX – And the Lord God said, My Spirit shall certainly not remain among these men forever, because they are flesh, but their days shall be a hundred and twenty years.
Hebrew -- And said Jehovah, not shall strive my spirit with man always in their erring; he is flesh; and shall be his days a hundred and twenty years.
- When we consider the Flood, it is clear that its purpose was not to stop evil. However, here God is stating His purpose – there will be a severe limit to a man’s lifespan. 120 years is almost childhood compared to the lifespans before the Flood. (As will be seen later, the Ark was built in much less than 120 years, which is the common misperception about the meaning of this verse.)
- God’s Spirit contends with man. That is an interesting bit of information. In John 14:17, the Holy Spirit is identified as the Spirit of Truth. In Romans 1, God’s anger is being poured out on those who suppress, or ignore the truth.
- The Holy Spirit will eventually pull away from those who continually resist Him/the truth. Men are allowed this choice.
NIV – The Nephilim were on the earth in those days – and also afterward – when the sons of God went to the daughters of men and had children by them. They were the heroes of old, men of renown.
KJV – There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown.
Alexandrian LXX – Now the giants were upon the earth in those days; and after that, when the sons of God were wont to go into the daughters of men, they bore to them, those were the giants of old, the men of renown.
Hebrew – the giants were on the earth in days those, and even afterwards, when came in the sons of God to the daughters of men and they bore to them; they were heroes who existed from ancient times the men of name.
- The original word translated ‘giants’ is nephilim. It means a bully, or tyrant, or giant. It comes from the word ‘naphal’ which means ‘to fall.’ These were fallen men, sinners, who may or may not have been large in stature. The NIV and the Hebrew give the clearest reference to ‘they’ with the punctuation, pointing back to the Nephilim being the ‘heroes,’ or ‘men of name or renown.’ The grammar indicates not that these were the children of the unions between the believing men and the unbelieving women, although certainly some may have been, but rather that these two things were contemporaneous. The referent is a little confusing, but the meaning is that these Nephilim, who were the heroes of ancient times, lived at the same time the sons of God were taking the daughters of men to bed.
- “and also afterward,” “and also after that,” and “even afterwards” are parenthetic, probably inserted by Moses. The NIV is the clearest of these translations for the meaning in this verse. The KJV translation has been quite misleading through the years.
- These bullies, these giants of men (at least in character) were considered heroes then, mighty men, men ‘of name.’ Since we know the whole earth was filled with violence at this time, we can presume wars. Were these men the leaders?
Genesis 6: 5
NIV – The LORD saw how great man’s wickedness on the earth had become, and that every inclination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil all the time.
KJV – And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.
Alexandrian – And the Lord God, having seen that the wicked actions of men were multiplied upon the earth, and that everyone in his heart was intently brooding over evil continually,
Hebrew – And saw Jehovah that great was the evil of man on the earth and every imagination the thoughts of his heart was only evil all the day long.
- Although the common interpretation comes from the Masoretic (NIV, KJV, Hebrew) and states that all men were always evil all the time, the Alexandrian might be giving us a little more of an idea of what was going on. First, the wicked actions were multiplying. That is not even in question. But then “everyone in his heart was intently brooding over evil continually.” Good men, however many or few there might have been, would be very disturbed by so much wickedness and be thinking about it and praying about it. Thus, the brooding part may have to do with men’s reactions, be they good men or evil men.
- Thus, this verse in the original, or as close as we can get to it with the Alexandrian LXX, does not indicate that all men alive were always evil all the time. That interpretation is negated by the description of Noah, himself, as being a 'righteous' man later.
NIV – The LORD was grieved that he had made man on the earth, and his heart was filled with pain.
KJV – And it repented the LORD that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart.
Alex – then God laid it to heart that he had made man upon the earth, and he pondered it deeply.
Hebrew – and repented Jehovah that he had made man on the earth; and he was angered to his heart.
- “repented” in the Hebrew is ‘nacham,’ meaning ‘to sigh or to breathe strongly’ by implication, to be sorry. In a favorable sense, to pity.
- Was God surprised? No, but in the same way you can know someone is going to die and then still cry at the funeral, the actuality of evil grieved God, even though He knew ahead of time what would happen.
- That we can cause God pain is a surprise to some. But He is not some ‘distant, all-pervasive spiritual intelligence.’ He is a Person.
NIV – So the LORD said, “I will wipe mankind, whom I have created, from the face of the earth – men and animals and creatures that move along the ground, and birds of the air – for I am grieved that I have made them.
KJV – And the LORD said, I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and the creeping thing, and the fowls of the air; for it repenteth me that I have made them.
Alex – And God said, I will blot out man whom I have made from the face of the earth, even man with cattle, and reptiles with flying creatures of the sky, for I have grieved ['thought, or 'reasoned,' is the literal translation from the Greek] about having made them.
Hebrew – And said Jehovah, I will wipe off man whom I have created from the face of the earth, from man to beast, to the creeping thing and to the fowl of the heavens; for I regret that I made them.
- There is another parenthetic here, as marked clearly in the NIV and only slightly indicated in the others. The original (NIV) would then read, “So the LORD said, “I will wipe mankind, whom I have created, from the face of the earth, for I am grieved that I have made them.” The parenthetic, so clear in this translation and vague in the others, was added to indicate that not just man would be wiped off the face of the earth. However by not indicating the parenthetic clearly, it sounds like God was grieved with the animals, too!
- The Alexandrian Greek gives the actual wording: “for I have thought about having made them.” This is an idiomatic phrase indicating sadness, regret, pain. By limiting the meaning in the English, confusion has been caused regarding this and related passages.
- Because all we know today that flies, besides insects, are birds, the translators using the Masoretic all referred to ‘fowls’ of the air. However the Alexandrian, using the “flying creatures of the sky” is probably more accurate. This would have included animals such as the pteradactyls.
NIV – But Noah found favor in the eyes of the LORD. This is the account of Noah.
KJV – But Noah found grace in the eyes of the LORD. These are the generations of Noah.
Alex – But Noe found grace before the Lord God. And these are the generations (‘geneseos’) of Noe.
Hebrew – But Noah found grace in the eyes of Jehovah. These are the generations of Noah.
- ‘generations’ is ‘toledot,’ meaning history, birth, family, descent.
- this is the close of Noah’s tablet
Friday, September 25, 2009 -- Genesis 6:9b – 22
This is the beginning of Shem, Ham, and Japheth’s joint tablet
NIV – Noah was a righteous man, blameless among the people of his time, and he walked with God.
KJV – Noah was a just man [and] perfect in his generations, and Noah walked with God.
Alex. LXX – Noe was a just man; being perfect in his generation, Noe was well-pleasing to God.
Hebrew – Noah, a man righteous, had been perfected among his peers with God Noah walked.
- “perfect in his generation” The word for ‘generation’ is genea, which is different from the signing off of the tablets, as Noah did in 6:9a – “This is the book of generations of Noah” – where ‘generations’ is genesios.
- genea – age, nation, time, or generation
- genesios – closest we can come is ‘genesis’ – natural, nature, generation
- “just” – in Greek is ‘dikaios’ meaning “justly, righteously, or to be righteous.” In the Hebrew the word is ‘saddiyq,’ meaning ‘just, lawful, righteous, innocent, honest.’ Comes from a root meaning ‘to make right, to cleanse, to clear oneself, to turn to righteousness.’ [“Adikaios” in the New Testament, meaning ‘without justice’ or ‘without righteousness,’ is also translated ‘iniquity.’]
- “perfected” – Hebrew – “pamiym” – to be entire, integrity, truth, without blemish, complete, full, perfect, sound, undefiled.” From a primitive root meaning ‘to be complete, to be upright, to be whole.’ In the Greek is “teleios,” meaning “perfect, that which is perfect, perfect to the end.”
- “well-pleasing” – comes from a root in Greek meaning ‘good deeds done, being a good pleasure to someone, or profitable for use.’
- “walked” -- “halak,” – primitive root meaning ‘to walk,’ with a great variety of applications. Can mean ‘to journey’ or ‘a traveler.’
- In Hebrews 11:7 we read “By faith Noah, when warned by God about things not yet seen, in holy fear built an ark to save his family [household]. (the word translated “fear” is also translated “devout” – it is ‘eulabeomai.’ It comes from a root meaning ‘to be careful, circumspect, religiously pious, or devout, to be cautious.’), through which he condemned the world and according to faith became an heir of righteousness.”
- In 2 Peter 2:5, we read, “And [God] did not spare the ancient world but saved Noah, the eighth preacher of righteousness, bringing in the flood on the world of the ungodly.” “Eighth preacher of righteousness” – The NIV says “Noah, a preacher of righteousness, and seven others…” The Greek says, “but Noah, the eighth of righteousness a preacher (or herald) preserved…” The NIV was trying to add a meaning which is not there. Noah was the eighth preacher of righteousness. What does this mean? First of all, all our righteousness is in Christ. (1 Corinthians 1:30, 2 Corinthians 5:21, etc.) Were the early people aware of the promise of a Redeemer? Of course – it was given to Eve. So anyone who preached about this coming Redeemer would be a preacher of righteousness. The fact that there had only been eight major preachers of righteousness for over 2000 years does show how fast evil had multiplied on the earth.
- Who were they? The Jewish approach says that the list goes through ten generations in the divine line to the Flood ending with Noah. However Enoch was translated before his father died, and Lamech (Noah’s father, not the Lamech of Genesis 4) died before his father died, so in Jewish tradition, Lamech would have been skipped. That leaves eight in the divine line, and understanding the Jewish tradition, they are saying these eight people mark the Melchizedek priesthood line. "Melchizedek" traditionally means 'king of righteousness.' There is an interesting note in the Hebrew here: 'melak,' meaning 'counselor' or 'counsel' and 'melek' meaning 'king' or royal' are almost exactly the same except for a vowel point. That is something to consider since the Masoretic text which our Old Testaments are translated from left out the vowel points for 800 years, after which (in 900 A.D.) they were inserted on the basis of oral tradition. So "Melchizedek" could have been a counselor or priest of righteousness and not The King of Righteousness, which is Jesus. Jewish tradition also says Shem was the next preacher of righteousness after Noah. It was his great-grandson, Eber, who was the next in line and probably the Melchizedek that Abraham bowed down to. (It would have been the great-grandson since Shem outlived his son and grandson.)
NIV – Noah had three sons: Shem, Ham and Japheth.
KJV – And Noah begat three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.
Alex. LXX – And Noe begot three sons, Shem, Ham and Japheth. [Sem, Cham, and Japheth are Greek spellings, thie most ancient Greek spelling known is Chapth for Ham]
Hebrew – and fathered Noah three sons: Shem, Ham, and Japheth.
- The word “Ham” meant ‘burnt one’ or ‘burnt’ and may be a reference to his skin color. However, considering that the names we are aware of for these people may well have been given to them as adults, it may refer to something else. What is interesting is that his name, with a very slight phonetic change, becomes ‘Herm,’ – ‘the burning one,’ and it may well be that he or his descendents set him us as the prototype of the mythological sun god, whose son, in Greek mythology, would have been Hermes.
- From the name “Shem” we get the later derivation of ‘semite.’
- At the close of chapter five, we read Noah was 500 years old when he begat Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Were they triplets? Maybe not, as in Genesis 11:10 we read that Shem was 98 when the Flood came. Noah 600 when he got on the Ark, so Shem was born when Noah was 501 or 502, depending on the date of the birthday involved. On the other hand, there is a possibility that the boys were actually triplets.
- Did Noah not have children before the three boys? We don’t know. If he did, they had chosen the world over the righteousness of their father. this also shows people could have children quite late in life.
NIV – Now the earth was corrupt in God’s sight and was full of violence.
KJV – The earth also was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence.
Alex. LXX – But the earth was corrupted before God, and the earth was filled with iniquity.
Hebrew -- And was corrupt the earth before God and was filled with the earth violence.
- corrupt – “shachath” – primitive root meaning “to decay, to ruin, to cast off, corrupt, destroy, to mar, to spoil, to be utterly wasted.” [In the Greek, ‘adikaios.’]
- violence – “chamac” – primitive root meaning “to be violent, to maltreat, to shake off, to violate, to do wrong or imagine wrongfully, to damage, to be unrighteous.”
- filled – [Greek] – katepheia – meaning ‘heaviness’
- In Matthew 24:37, Jesus says, “But as the days of Noah, so also will be the coming of the Son of Man. For as in the days before the Flood, they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage until the day that Noah entered the Ark, and did not know until the Flood came and took them all away, so also will the coming of the Son of Man be.” – today violence is seen as entertainment, and between the video type games and the real wars, as well as the individual crimes which seem to be increasing, violence is again filling the world. In the meantime, despite all this, the same old social rounds continue.
NIV – God saw how corrupt the earth had become, for all the people on earth had corrupted their ways.
KJV – And God looked upon the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth.
Alex. LXX – and the Lord God saw the earth, and it was corrupted; because all flesh had corrupted its way upon the earth.
Hebrew – And saw God the earth and, behold, it was corrupted; for had corrupted all flesh its way on the earth.
- “flesh” is ‘basar.’ Derived from another word which means ‘freshness’ and by extension, ‘body,’ or ‘person.’ Euphemistically it can mean ‘a man.’ The point here is that the word ‘flesh’ had a different meaning for them. We think of it as the muscles themselves or at least the covering over the muscles of all large animals. In the Hebrew it is used exclusively to mean mankind, or people.
- God ‘saw’ the earth – it does not mean He was not looking before! It means simply that the time had come for Him to implement His plan due to the increased violence on earth. The word translated ‘saw’ can also mean ‘consider.’
- Reiteration about corruption – it was really bad
NIV -- So God said to Noah, “I am going to put an end to all people, for the earth is filled with violence because of them. I am surely going to destroy both them and the earth.
KJV – And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth.
Alex. LXX – And the Lord God said to Noe, A period of all men [literal Greek is 'the time of every man'] is come before me; because the earth has been filled with iniquity by them, and behold, I destroy them and the earth.
Hebrew – And said God to Noah, The end of all flesh has come before me, for is filled with the earth violence because of them; and, behold, I will destroy them along with the earth.
- Here again the NIV has changed the meaning. God did not say He was going to put an end to all people in this part, He said ‘the end of all flesh [every man] is come before me.’ That is a different meaning. It means He knew ahead of time and here is that time, now. He places the responsibility for the violence which fills the earth (makes it heavy) squarely on man’s shoulders, not on any demonic activity. This again indicates that the sin in Genesis 6 had nothing to do with demons having sex with women, but with whatever few believing men there were taking unbelieving wives. Thus, men and the earth which nurtured them so completely will be destroyed.
NIV – So make yourself an ark of cypress wood; make rooms in it and coat it with pitch inside and out.
KJV – Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch.
Alex. LXX – Make therefore, for yourself, an ark of square timber; you shall make the ark in compartments [literally, in the Greek, “in nests”], and you will pitch it within and without with pitch.
Hebrew – Make for yourself an ark of cypress timbers; rooms you shall make in the ark; and you shall cover it inside and out with ashphalt.
- The Hebrew word for ‘ark’ is used only in this context and once again with the basket Moses’ mother made for him. Both were coated with pitch.
- What kind of wood was it? The NIV and the Hebrew translation say ‘cypress.’ In the Hebrew it is a compound word, which includes the word for ‘tree.’ The other word bears a resemblance to the word ‘tirzah,’ which is often translated as ‘cypress.’ But it comes from the word ‘razah’ which means to make or become thin or emaciate.
- The word the Hebrew scholars used for the Greek translation, “square” is ‘tetragonon.’ It means ‘square timbers.’ If we look at the KJV as ‘gopher’ wood, that may indicate a type of plywood. This does not disagree with the idea of ‘square timbers’ as these are made by man and are not cut that way from trees. The actual word in the Hebrew, ‘se’eth,’ actually can mean ‘an elevation’ or something like a scab – something which is raised up. Again, it is not simply a type of wood but evidently something done to the wood. There is a word in French which means to emboss: gaufrer. Was ‘gopher’ wood a mistake taken from this? We don’t know.
- The word translated ‘pitch’ is ‘kopher,’ which means ‘to cover.’ Noah was to cover it within and without with a covering or coating. Interestingly, the word is also used for ‘redemption.’ “Blessed is the man whose sin is kopher – covered.” The word does NOT mean asphalt or even pitch. These are traditional meanings and may be right, but it is not what is actually being said here.
- We are not sure there were bitumen or oil deposits in the pre-flood world. We have no evidence for that. What we do have, however, is the data archaeologists have found regarding ancient peoples, up to and including the Romans. When birch bark was boiled it would form a sticky tar and this was often used for waterproofing and glue.
NIV – This is how you are to build it: the ark is to be 450 feet long, 75 feet wide and 45 feet high.
KJV – And this is [the fashion] which thou shalt make it [of]: The length of the ark [shall be] three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits.
Alex. LXX -- And thus shall you make the ark; 300 cubits the length of the ark, and 50 cubits the breadth, and thirty cubits the height of it.
Hebrew – And thus you shall make it: 300 cubits shall be the length of the ark; 50 cubits shall be its breadth; and thirty cubits shall be its height.
- A cubit was distance from the tip of the elbow to the tip of the middle finger. If people were taller in those days, a cubit would have been longer than the 18” ascribed to it today.
- Ezekiel makes reference to something which has become known as the ‘royal cubit’ which was 26 inches long! If this is the case for Noah, then we have a much larger Ark. It could have been up to 600 feet long or more. It would then have been at least 60 feet high and about 100 feet wide.
NIV – Make a roof for it and finish the ark to within 18 inches of the top. Put a door in the side of the ark and make lower, middle and upper decks.
KJV – A window shalt thou make to the ark, and in a cubit shalt thou finish it above; and the door of the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof; [with] lower, second, and third [stories] shalt thou make it.
Alex. LXX – You shall narrow the ark in making it, and in a cubit above you will finish it, and the door of the ark you shall make on the side [or, literally, “out of the side”]; with lower, second, and third stories you shall make it.
Hebrew – A window you shall make in the ark, and to a cubit you shall finish it above, and the door of the ark in its side you shall set; with lower, second and third stories you shall make it.
- In the LXX we find ‘you shall narrow the ark in making it.’ Since the width measurement is given as one figure, the narrowing must have been vertical.
- One commentator suggested that this also refers to the size of the planks or square timbers being used – that the largest and heaviest would be at the bottom and they would become narrower as Noah went up, thus distributing the weight more advantageously.
- The width to height ratio turns out to be the most stable for rough waters, but it would be very slow moving if it were expected to actually get you any place. The measurements show it was being constructed only for stability.
NIV – I am going to bring floodwaters on the earth to destroy all life under the heavens, every creature that has the breath of life in it. Everything on earth will perish.
KJV – And, behold, I, even I, do bring a flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven; and everything that is in the earth shall die.
Alex. LXX -- And, behold, I bring a flood of water upon the earth, to destroy all flesh in which is the breath of life under heaven, and whatsoever things are upon the earth shall die. [the literal Greek reads "I will bring a flood, water, upon the earth..."]
Hebrew – and I, even I, behold and bring the flood of waters on the earth in order to destroy all flesh in which it is the breath of life from under the sky. Everything which is on the earth shall die.
- God says He will bring flood waters on the earth. He does not say rain.
- “All flesh” is a normally a reference to mankind, but when the qualifier is added “in which is the breath of life,” the meaning is then broadened to include the large land animals which have complex nervous systems and circulating blood
NIV – But I will establish my covenant with you, and you will enter the ark – you and your sons and your wife and your sons’ wives with you.
KJV – But with thee will I establish my covenant; and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons’ wives with thee.
Alex. LXX -- And I will establish my covenant with you, and you will enter into the ark, and your sons and your wife, and your sons’ wives with you.
Hebrew – And I will establish my covenant with you; and you shall come into the ark, you and your sons and your wife and your sons’ wives with you.
- The covenant is to be established in the future.
NIV – You are to bring into the ark two of all living creatures, male and female, to keep them alive with you.
KJV – And of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep alive with thee; they shall be male and female.
Alex. LXX – And of all cattle and of all reptiles and of all wild beasts, even of all flesh, you shall bring in by pairs [in Greek, literally “two, two”] of all, into the ark, that you may feed them with yourself: male and female they shall be.
Hebrew – And of every living thing, of all flesh, two of every kind you shall bring into the ark to keep alive with you; male and female they shall be.
- The Alexandrian LXX, in using the ‘two two’ repetition may not mean ‘by pairs,’ but may mean two pairs of each.
- Here again ‘flesh’ is being used in reference to everything on land with nephesh, or the breath of life.
- The LXX also has ‘that you may feed them with yourself,’ -- Noah will have the responsibility of feeding them.
NIV – Two of every kind of bird, of every kind of animal and of every kind of creature that moves along the ground will come to you to be kept alive.
KJV – Of fowls after their kind, and of cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of the earth after his kind, two of every sort shall come unto thee, to keep [them] alive.
Alex. LXX -- Of all winged birds after their kind, and of all cattle after their kind, and of all reptiles creeping upon the earth after their kind, pairs of all shall come in to you, male and female, to be fed with you.
Hebrew – From the fowl after its kind and from the cattle after its kind, from every creeping thing of the ground after its kind, two from each shall come into you to keep alive.
- The animals will come to Noah; he does not have to go out and collect them. The individuals to be on the Ark are God’s choice.
- Again, in the LXX, the directions are more explicit – Noah is to make sure the animals are fed.
NIV – You are to take every kind of food that is to be eaten and store it away as food for you and for them.”
KJV – And take thou unto thee of all food that is eaten, and thou shalt gather [it] to thee; and it shall be for food for thee, and for them.
Alex. LXX – And you shall take to yourself of all kinds of food which you eat and you shall gather them to yourself, and it shall be for you and them to eat.
Hebrew -- And you shall take for yourself of all food that is eaten, and gather to yourself; and let it be for you and for them for food.
- The Alexandrian is again more explicit, saying not just all food that is eaten, but all food that Noah himself eats. Thus, people were still as dependent upon good sources of protein before the Flood as after, which is why animals were given to people to eat afterwards, at the same time the cats became carnivorous and many other animals omnivorous.
- This verse definitely indicates that all were vegetarians before the Flood.
NIV – Noah did everything just as the God commanded him.
KJV – Thus did Noah; according to all that God commanded him, so did he.
Alex. LXX -- And Noe did all things whatever the Lord God commanded him, so he did.
Hebrew – And did Noah as to all that told him God, so he did.
- Let our prayer be that this can be said of each of us as well.
Friday, October 2, 2009 -- The Geology connected to Noah's Flood
Note: we summarized the following during the Bible study. Instead of presenting the summary, we have lifted a part of the book "The Bible and Geology," available here, which gives a somewhat fuller picture. We have added some extra pictures which are not in the book, or at different places in the book, to help with the understanding of what happened.
In Genesis 7:11 we read what happened at the initiation of the Flood: ALL the fountains burst forth. The rain comes second. Those ‘fountains’ bursting forth cannot be marginalized. We find some interesting clues even earlier in Genesis. In Genesis 2 there is a parenthetic in verses 5 and 6 which appears to have been inserted after the initial writing. Here is Genesis 2:4b-7, so you can see what it reads like with or without the inclusion:
Alexandrian LXX: in the day in which the Lord God made the heaven and the earth, and every herb of the field before it was on the earth, and all the grass of the field before it sprang up, for God had not rained on the earth, and there was not a man to cultivate it. But there rose a fountain out of the earth, and watered the whole face of the earth. And God formed the man of the dust of the earth and breathed upon his face the breath of life, and man became a living soul.
King James: in the day that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens, and every plant of the field before it was in the death, and every herb of the field before it grew: for the LORD God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground. But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground. And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul.
New International Version: When the LORD God made the earth and the heavens – and no shrub of the field had yet appeared on the earth and no plant of the field had yet sprung up, for the Lord God had not sent rain on the earth and there was no man to work the ground, but streams came up from the earth and watered the whole surface of the ground – the LORD God formed the man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living being.
Without the parenthetic in blue, we see the original words. If we take a close look at the parenthetic, there are some important things to note.
- It is referring to early on day 3 of creation: before any grass or herb or plant was growing.
- It is making a point that man is not yet in existence.
- It is stating there was no rain on the earth at that time.
Many people believe it never rained before the Flood. That is not necessarily true, taken from this statement in Genesis 2. However, after the Flood part of the promise of God to not destroy the earth by water again was that He put His rainbow in the clouds. A rainbow in the clouds can only happen when it rains during the day and the clouds clear a bit, allowing the sun through. Therefore we can assume it never rained during the day before the flood of Noah, but there is no biblical indication that it never rained at all before the time of Noah.
But by day three, within hours of the land being thrust up from the depth of the sea, water was coming up out of the land to water it. Why does water go up? Because it is under pressure. Pressure means heat. This is important. No matter what model of origins one subscribes to, there is general agreement among geologists that there were no radioactive materials on the surface of the earth in the beginning. They were buried under the crust. But they were decaying. At the beginning, both the long and short half-life elements were decaying at the same time and the heat this generated would have driven the water out of the primeval rocks and minerals and crystal lattices. This water would have risen and pooled in the crust, and then seeped or spurted out in the weak areas. It would have been warm water, which explains why the word used in the Hebrew can mean mist as well as other upwellings, such as a geyser. The word translated streams, mist, or fountain above is ‘ed’ and is used only two times in the Bible. The second time is in Job 36:27 – “He draws up the drops of water, which distill as rain to the streams.”(NIV) “Ed” is from an unusual root meaning ‘to rake together.’ Strongs interprets it only as a mist or vapor. However the King James, in translating the passage in Job, reads, “for he maketh small the drops of water; they pour down rain according to the vapour thereof.” Going back to the Alexandrian LXX, we find, “And the drops of rain are numbered by him, and shall be poured out in rain to form a cloud.”
Whatever form the initial water took, it was coming up. It was under pressure, and that pressure and the associated heat is easily explained by the radio decay under the crust. Today most geologists, regardless of views regarding age and origin of the earth, agree that the heavy radioactive materials were not on the surface of the earth at first. They were deep under the crust. Radio decay, or the changing of these heavy elements, such as uranium, into lighter elements by shedding protons, neutrons, and electrons, produces quite a bit of heat.
If radio decay was the cause, then we should see the pressure building. That is exactly the indication when the Garden of Eden is described a few verses later, in Genesis 2:10-14. We read there was a river flowing from Eden in such quantity that it formed the headwaters of four different rivers. As a side note here it is important to mention that the names associated with these rivers in our modern translations: Tigris and Euphrates, are not in the original. The word translated “Tigris” is “Hiddikel”, which means “rapid – something flowing rapidly.” The word translated “Euphrates” is “Perath,” which means “to break forth.” “Pishon,” the name of another river, and simply means “to disperse, or spread;” and “Gihon” the fourth river, means “stream.” So we have four rivers, one flowing rapidly, one breaking forth, one spreading out, and the other simply a stream. These four rivers originate from the river in Eden. So from day 3 to day 6 or 8 (if man was put in Eden a couple of days after being created), the pressure under the crust had grown significantly.
Now take a look at the onset of Noah’s Flood:
Alexandrian LXX: In the six hundredth year of the life of Noe, in the second month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, on this day all the fountains of the abyss were broken up and the flood-gates of heaven [literal Greek: cataracts of heaven] were opened.
King James: In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of the heaven were opened.
NIV: In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, on the seventeenth day of the second month – on that day all the springs of the great deep burst forth, and the floodgates of the heavens were opened.
The word ‘abyss’ in the LXX and ‘deep’ in the other two is “tehom” – meaning an abyss or a surging mass. It does not mean the ocean or the seas, which is the common perception. It does indicate under the crust of the earth and violent movement. However for upwelling waters to be breaking up, does mean to burst forth, or coming up suddenly and violently.
Some of the ancient flood legends from around the world recall scalding waters bursting forth and burning all they touched. The Jewish Talmud itself (Sanhedrin 108b) says the rain was scalding hot. This means the source of the rain was not the sky, but the exploding waters falling back to earth. They would have carried up with them ton after ton of pulverized debris and even larger rocks. It was this hot, wet mass which rained back down on the earth for forty days and nights. Scalding waters would not fossilize anything. We should not expect fossils in the Flood strata. The violence would have been terrific and horrifying. The onrushing water would have carried everything in its wake, including boulders.
The explosive nature of these great fountains of the abyss would have been untamed over land, but any exploding under the sea would be partly defused by the buffering effect of water. Below is a picture of the eruption of Pinatubo in the Philippines, June 12, 1991. Take a look at the height the explosion reached compared to the land forms, so tiny, beneath it. Fifteen to twenty miles is a fairly typical height for a good size volcanic eruption.
Compare that to the eruption of a volcano underwater:
In addition, when we look at topographical maps of the Pacific Ocean, we do not see the great rifts that we see in the Atlantic and other oceans. If the fountains were exploding along the rift zones we see today, then there was little activity on the Pacific Ocean side of the world. There was still only one continent, so the Pacific would have been much, much wider than it is today. That leaves an enormous amount of room for ocean life to survive, as well as any vegetation mats which made it far enough out past the continental boundaries.
There are several important notes which need to be made at this point. Please note the following map. It is of the southern part of the single large continent which existed then (although Australia has been left out!):
The parts labeled 'cratons' are giant granite and basalt outpourings which took place before the Flood, under the crust. The people alive at the time may have felt some earthquake activity and noticed some upliftingof the crust in areas, but what was happening was far more dramatic than that. A series of astroid impacts (known astronomically as the Late Heavy Bombardment) which hit, probably on the Pacific side of the world, send shock waves through the earth itself, much like earthquakes can do today, but on a much, much larger scale. These shock waves melted areas of the mantle (the radiodecay activity had not yet done that on a world-wide scale) and generated large magma plumes which then rose toward the crust, cracking the mantle rock, and flowing up into and on it. Although it penetrated into the crustal rocks, metamorphosing those it came in contact with (which we can see in the earliest geologic strata) it probably did not penetrate to the point of layering over the crust itself. The picture below, demonstrating a small area in California, gives an idea of the process:
These uplifted cratons would later become the foundations around which the continents would be built. They are biblically referred to as the pillars of the earth. This is another example of the Bible being thousands of years ahead of science. Below is a drawing of the pillar of partially solidified magma under Iceland:
It extends about 250 miles down. The crust is only about ten miles thick.
Between the cratons, as shown in the map above, are mobile belts -- areas which can and do shift. The black lines show known areas of weakness called dykes, where the early waters were outpouring. These, and others on the rest of the early continent, were the 'fountains of the abyss.'
The fountains of the abyss were in lines along the weakened areas of the crust which separated the giant cratons. These areas would later become the edges of the new continents. At the onset of the Flood, like terribly ferocious geysers, the exploding waters would go straight up and, initially, come back down directly. When they exploded upwards, they would have carried with them ton after ton of pulverized debris they had chewed out from the crust itself as well as bringing up other material from the mantle. This was the 'rain' experienced by Noah for forty days: scalding, rock-filled, muddy downpours as the floodgates of the heavens seemed to open and rain wrath down upon them. As the heated waters accumulated in the air, minus the debris which had fallen, the giant cloud layers would have formed. The Bible tells us these explosions of water and the resulting rains continued for forty days and nights. At that point the waters were stopped and started receding until, by the 150th day, the Ark touched land.
Even today we can see that the ocean has warm and cold currents running through it. It is not all of uniform temperature or salinity. There is no reason to suspect that it was not that way during and after the Flood when newly heated waters intruded in areas, carrying the massive amounts of salts torn up from the crust. Thus there is no reason to consider the continuation of much life in the ocean a mystery.
The evidence for this catastrophe stretches around the world. First we find an average depth of a thousand feet of rocks and boulders of all types cemented together. They are in a limestone matrix that can only be formed in warm water. Magnetic fields in rocks found in South Australia indicate they originated at sea level at the equator. This evidence of large rocks and boulders being deposited so far from their point of origin is the reason many geologists posit a worldwide glaciation.
The pictures above are of the limestone strata which cemented so many different sizes and types of rocks.
Standard geology often refers to this layer as the 'snowball earth' strata, for the only thing they are willing to admit which can carry rocks and boulders hundreds of miles are glaciers.
One problem with the ‘snowball earth’ interpretation is that this type of limestone only forms in warm to hot water. The snowball earth model posits volcanic eruptions during this glacial time which would be needed to heat the waters enough to form this type of limestone. That much volcanism in the middle of that much glaciation does pose a problem.
Further evidence for this Flood is found, again all around the world in various places, in the incredibly deep layer of carbon-rich, finely laminated sediments which lie directly on the debris layer cemented in limestone. It is also rich in kerogen, which comes from the breakdown of muscle tissue. In South Australia this strata is two miles thick. There are no fossils in these layers – instead they are evidence of a violent water catastrophe, exactly as described in the Bible.
The presence of these finely-layered carbon-rich sediments is also a problem for the snowball earth model. If the entire world were under ice, there is no way layer after layer of rotted organisms could form in this way. In fact, evidence of tides and even ripple marks are found in the upper part of the carbon-rich strata. The evidence presented by these strata indicate that all living things were utterly and completely destroyed and buried, crushed and burned and rotted at this time. The exception was what was preserved with Noah and his family on the Ark and what was further out at sea, away from the exploding waters. When we see the vegetation mats produced by the monsoons in Southeast Asia today, we can understand that some may have also formed during the Flood. It would have been on them that the insects and amphibians and much plant life survived.
Remember that not every square foot of earth was a place where waters burst forth. They would have come up through already weakened sections of the crust, such as in Eden where a great river was already gushing forth forming the headwaters for four other rivers. The giant sections of crust displaced by these bursting ‘fountains’ could easily have sent sections of vegetative masses in all directions, some of which survived in mid-ocean areas, in relative calm during the 40 days of exploding waters and resultant muddy, rocky, scalding rains.
Because the rocky limestone and organically rich strata on top of it exist in places all over the world, standard geology has to present a world-wide scenario to account for it. Thus, ‘snowball earth,’ for only glaciations will be admitted as having the power to move rocks and boulders those huge distances. The extremely deep carbon and kerogen-rich sediments overlying the limestone holding all those rocks is attributed to vast amounts of time in which silt was slowly deposited layer by layer (with nothing else intruding). However the limestone in which the rocks are cemented can only be formed in warm water and when standard geology tries to insert volcanic action into the snowball earth model in order to get those warm waters, the model itself becomes confused.
In direct contrast is the biblical explanation of the Flood, which not only accounts for the warm water limestone matrix cementing the many rocks of various sizes from different places, but it also accounts for the vast layers of organic sediment. That was the world that died.
After the Flood the world would not have become suddenly geologically quiet. Massive amounts of topsoil had been washed off the cratons and this was deposited in the low-lying areas as the waters started receding. The low-lying areas were thus marshy, warm areas which were often subjected to mudslides and areas of burial. This was also happening under the waters as the ocean beds and shelves were settling. It is here we find the first fossils -- first the little mud-dwelling organisms and then the organisms which were buried primarily in the areas of the mobile belts which were under water. Above them, in the marshy areas on the land, the algae, ferns, mosses, and giant insects lived, and were often buried and fossilized by the chemically rich muds which were sliding in response to the ongoing shifting of the earth's crust as the earth itself adjusted to its new surface features.
Because men and mammals do not live in marshes, we should not expect to find them in these strata of fossilized rocks.
Friday, October 9, 2009 -- Genesis 7
NIV – The LORD then said to Noah, “Go into the ark, you and your whole family, because I have found you righteous in this generation.
KJV – And the LORD said unto Noah, Come thou and all thy house into the ark; for thee have I seen righteous before me in this generation.
Alex. LXX – And the Lord God said to Noe, Enter you and all your family [literal Greek is 'house'] into the ark, for you have I seen righteous before me in this generation.
Hebrew – And said Jehovah to Noah, Come you and all your house into the ark, for you I have seen righteous before me in this generation.
The Bible defines two types of righteousness – that coming from perfectly obeying the law and that coming from faith in Christ. However, as Paul later points out:
- “I found that the very commandment that was intended to bring life actually brought death.” (Romans 7:10)
- and “All who rely on observing the law are under a curse, for it is written: ‘Cursed is everyone who does not continue to do everything written in the Book of the Law.’ Clearly one is justified before God by the law, because ‘The righteous will live by faith.’ The law is not based on faith; on the contrary, ‘the man who does these things will live by them.’ Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming a curse for us.” Galatians 3:10-14)
- and then, “I do not set aside the grace of God, for if righteousness could be gained through the law, Christ died for nothing!” (Galatians 2:21)
Therefore, Noah was a believer in the coming Messiah/Redeemer.
- Matthew 13:16-17 – “But blessed are your eyes because they see, and your ears because they hear. For I tell you the truth, many prophets and righteous men longed to see what you see but did not see it, and to hear what you hear, but did not hear it.”
- Romans 1:17 – “For in the gospel a righteousness from God is revealed, a righteousness that is by faith from first to last, just as it is written: ‘The righteous will live by faith.’”
- 1 Corinthians 1:27-30 – “But God chose the foolish things of the world to shame the wise; God chose the weak things of the world to shame the strong. He chose the lowly things of this world and the despised things – the things that are not – to nullify the things that are, so that no one may boast before him. It is because of him that you are in Christ Jesus, who has become for us wisdom from God – that is, our righteousness, holiness and redemption.”
- Philippians 3:7-9 – “But whatever was to my profit I now consider loss for the sake of Christ. What is more, I consider everything a loss compared to the surpassing greatness of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord, for whose sake I have lost all things. I consider them rubbish, that I may gain Christ and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own that comes from the law, but righteousness that comes from God and is by faith.”
Because of his righteousness, his faith, was his family also saved? No – ‘“Though these three men, Noah, Daniel and Job were in it [the land], they would deliver only themselves by their righteousness,” says the Lord God.’ Ez. 14:14 and on.
His sons evidently had sufficient faith that they believed what Noah told him and, we presume, helped him build the ark.
NIV – Take with you seven of every kind of clean animal, a male and its mate, and two of every kind of unclean animals, a male and its mate, and also seven of every kind of bird, male and female, to keep their various kinds alive through the earth.
KJV – Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee by sevens, the male and his female: and of beasts that [are] not clean by two, the male and his female. Of fowls also of the air by sevens, the male and the female; to keep seed alive upon the face of all the earth.
Alex. LXX – And of the clean cattle take into you sevens, male and female, and of the unclean cattle pairs male and female. And of the clean flying creatures of the sky sevens, male and female, and of all unclean flying creatures pairs, male and female, to maintain seed on all the earth.
Hebrew – From every animal clean you shall take to yourself by sevens, male and female; and of the animal that is not clean by two, male and female. And of the fowl of the heavens by sevens, male and female; to keep alive seed upon the face of all the earth.
- The traditional belief is that there was only one pair each of the unclean animals. But the word for ‘two’ in Genesis 7:2 and 3, is 8147 in Strongs – shenayim – so the word itself is plural. It is a dual of 8145, --sheniy – meaning double, second, two, or again, etc. The idea of two pairs seems to be indicated in the Hebrew. So there may have been two pairs of unclean animals and seven pairs of clean animals. The word for ‘seven’ also means ‘complete’ and if you go with that implication, you need the female there as well – thus seven pairs.
- God chose which animals because He and only He knew which sets of genes would manage in the new world.
NIV – Seven days from now I will send rain on the earth for forty days and forty nights, and I will wipe from the face of the earth every living creature that I have made. And Noah did all that the Lord commanded him.
KJV – For yet seven days, and I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights; and every living substance that I have made will I destroy from off the face of the earth. And Noah did according unto all that the LORD commanded him.
Alex. LXX – For yet seven days ['having passed' is inserted here by the interpreter and is in italics. It is not in the original Greek] I will bring rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights, and I will blot out every offspring which I have made from the face of all the earth. And Noe did all things whatever the Lord God commanded him.
Hebrew – For to the days after seven more I will cause rain on the earth forty days and forty nights, and will wipe away every living substance that I have made from off the face of the earth. And did Noah as to all that ordered him Jehovah.
- Rain takes a secondary place to the actual floodwaters – ref: 7:11
- Second time it is stated that Noah did all that God commanded him.
- Did it take seven days to load up the ark? It appears that was the reason for the seven days’ warning
- Jesus says the DAY Noah entered the ark the flood commenced (Matthew 24:38 and Luke 17:27)
NIV – Noah was six hundred years old when the floodwaters came on the earth. And Noah and his sons and his wife and his sons’ wives entered the ark to escape the waters of the flood. Pairs of clean and unclean animals, of birds and of all creatures that move along the ground, male and female, came to Noah and entered the ark, as God had commanded Noah.
KJV – And Noah was six hundred years old when the flood of waters was upon the earth. And Noah went in, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons; wives with him, into the ark, because of the waters of the flood. Of clean beasts, and of beasts that are not clean, and of fowls, and of every thing that creepeth upon the earth, There went in two and two unto Noah into the ark, the male and the female, as God had commanded Noah.
Alex. LXX – And Noe was six hundred years old when the flood of water was upon the earth. And then went in Noe and his sons and his wife, and his sons’ wives with him into the ark, because of the water of the flood. And of clean flying creatures and of unclean flying creatures, and of clean cattle and of unclean cattle, and of all things that creep upon the earth, pairs went into Noe into the ark, male and female, as God commanded Noe.
Hebrew – Noah was a son of six hundred years; and the flood was waters on the earth. And Noah went in and his sons and his wife and wives his sons with him into the ark because of the waters of the flood. Of the animals clean and of animals were not clean, and of the fowl and of everything that creeps on the earth. Two by two they went in to Noah into the ark, male and female as had commanded God Noah.
Notes – good summary of the situation
NIV – And after the seven days the floodwaters came on the earth. In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, on the seventeenth day of the second month – on that day all the springs of the great deep burst forth, and the floodgates of the heavens were opened. And rain fell on the earth forty days and forty nights.
KJV – And it came to pass after seven days, that the waters of the flood were upon the earth. In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of the heaven were opened. And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights.
Alex. LXX – And it came to pass after the seven days that the water of the flood came upon the earth. In the six hundredth year of the life of Noe, in the second month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, on this day all the fountains of the abyss were broken up, and the floodgates ['cataracts' in the literal Greek] of heaven were opened. [From the actual Greek this reads: On that very day all the fountains of the abyss exploded and cataracts of newly-generated and heaped-up rain poured out of the sky.] And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights.
Hebrew – And in time after the seven days, the waters of the flood came into being upon the earth. In the six hundredth year of life Noah’s in the month second, in the seventeenth day of the month, in this day were risen all the fountains of the great deep and the windows of the heavens were opened up. And was the rain on the earth forty days and forty nights.
- The LXX makes it plain that the rain came as a result of the fountains bursting out. This counters the later ‘explanations’ done by interpreters regarding the ‘windows of the heaven’ being the primary source of the water which caused the rain.
- Hebrew words indicate violence in the bursting out.
- This would have resulted in mankind’s first exposure to radioactive materials that the exploding waters carried up with them material from mantle.
- Thus the rain was at least partly a hot, radioactive rain.
- There are a number of creationist apologists who claim that the rain lasted 150 days, but the evidence from these passages is very clear that the rain only lasted forty days and forty nights.
NIV – On that very day Noah and his sons, Shem, Ham and Japheth, together with his wife and the wives of his three sons, entered the ark. They had with them every wild animal according to their kinds, every creature that moves along the ground according to its kind and every bird according to its kind, everything with wings. Pairs of all creatures that have the breath of life in them came to Noah and entered the ark.
KJV – In the selfsame day entered Noah, and Shem, and Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah, and Noah’s wife, and the three wives of his sons with them, into the ark. They, and every beast after his kind, and all the cattle after their kind, and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind, and every fowl after his kind, every bird of every sort. And they went in unto Noah into the ark, two and two of all flesh, wherein is the breath of life.
Alex. LXX – On that very day entered Noe, Sem, Cham, Japheth, the sons of Noe and the wife of Noe, and the three wives of his sons with him into the ark. And all the wild beasts after their kind, and all cattle after their kind, and every reptile moving itself on the earth after its kind, and every flying bird after its kind, went into Noe, into the ark, pairs, male and female of all flesh in which is the breath of life.
Hebrew – In same this day Noah entered and Shem and Ham and Japheth, the sons of Noah, and wife Noah’s and the three wives of his sons with them into the ark. They and every animal after its kind and every beast after its kind and every creeping thing that creeps on the earth after its kind, and every fowl after its kind, every bird of every wing. And went they to Noah into the ark, two by two of all flesh, which in it is the breath of life.
- On that very, very same, day – flood started immediately after Noah on ark. Matthew 24:38-39, 42
- emphasis on kind – not same as species. Think of ‘equine,’ ‘bovine,’ ‘feline,’ canine,’ etc. “Species” is a modern concept involving isolated breeding populations, normally which refuse to breed with other, similar, populations. Hummingbirds are a good example – they have speciated to the extent that it is difficult for the ordinary person to tell one ‘species’ apart from another. Compare this to pet dogs, which are all considered one species, regardless of looks or size or anything else. This is because dogs’ breeding cues are olfactory, so it doesn’t matter what a potential mate looks like. Hummingbirds’ breeding cues are visual, so what the prospective mate looks like is extremely important. The Bible does not deal with species, but, rather, with kinds, or those ancestral populations from which the pairs came which gave rise to the variations, or species, after the Flood.
NIV – The animals going in were male and female of every living thing, as God had commanded Noah. Then the LORD shut him in.
KJV – And they that went in, went in male and female of all flesh, as God had commanded him: and the LORD shut him in.
Alex. LXX – And they that entered went in, male and female, of all flesh, as God commanded Noe. And the Lord God shut the ark outside of him.
Hebrew – And those going in male and female of all flesh went in as had commanded him God. And shut Jehovah behind him.
- Did the LORD seal the door? That is a common understanding, but there appears to be a possible play on words here: the word ‘shut’ is ‘cgr.’ With vowels it is cagar. The word following in the Hebrew dictionary is ‘cgrd,’ which means ‘sweeping away, pouring rain, or very rainy.’ Later we find that Noah opens the door to the Ark himself when the Lord tells him it is time and the earth is safe to live on again. So did the Lord ‘rain’ Noah in? We need to be careful with what we decide to do with phrases like this.
NIV – For forty days the flood kept coming on the earth, and as the waters increased they lifted the ark high above the earth. The waters rose and increased greatly on the earth, and the ark floated on the surface of the water. They rose greatly on the earth, and all the high mountains under the entire heavens were covered. The waters rose and covered the mountains to a depth of more than twenty feet.
KJV – And the flood was forty days upon the earth; and the waters increased, and bare up the ark, and it was lift up above the earth. And the waters prevailed, and were increased greatly upon the earth; and the ark went upon the face of the waters. And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth; and all the high hills, that were under the whole heaven, were covered. Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail; and the mountains were covered.
Alex. LXX – And the flood was upon the earth forty days and forty nights, and the water abounded greatly and bore up the ark, and it was lifted on high from off the earth. And the water prevailed and abounded exceedingly upon the earth, and the ark was borne upon the water. And the water prevailed exceedingly upon the earth, and covered all the high mountains which were under heaven. Fifteen cubits upwards was the water raised, and it covered all the high mountains.
Hebrew – And was the flood forty days on the earth; and increased the waters and bore up the ark, and it was lifted above the earth. And prevailed the waters and were increased greatly upon the earth, and floated the ark from the face of the waters. And the waters prevailed exceedingly on the earth; and were covered all the mountains high which under all the heavens. Fifteen cubits upwards prevailed the waters; and were hid the mountains.
- Early mountains more like our hills. “Mountains” is ‘har’ which is the shortened form of ‘harar,’ which means ‘something which looms up,’ generally meaning a range of hills, and is used to describe the hill country in Israel.
- Definite description of waters increasing, then prevailing, then prevailing exceedingly.
- Fifteen cubits may have been the draft of the Ark. That is how high the water had to go above the land it was built on before it started floating.
- No doubt in Bible that this is a worldwide flood.
- If the Flood was only local, as many claim, why not tell Noah just to get his beasts to higher land or another location? Why bring pairs of all land and air animals with the breath of life to Noah to be kept alive, if all they needed was higher ground?
NIV – Every living thing that moved on the earth perished – birds, livestock, wild animals, all the creatures that swarm over the earth, and all mankind. Everything on dry land that had the breath of life in its nostrils died. Every living thing on the face of the earth was wiped out; men and animals and the creatures that move along the ground and the birds of the air were wiped from the earth. Only Noah was left, and those with him in the ark.
KJV – And all flesh died that moved upon the earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, and every man: All in whose nostrils was the breath of life, and all that was in the dry land, died. And every living substance was destroyed which was upon the face of the ground, both man, and cattle, and the creeping things, and the fowl of the heaven; and they were destroyed from the earth: and Noah only remained alive, and they that were with him in the ark.
Alex. LXX – And there died all flesh that moved upon the earth, of flying creatures and cattle, and of wild beasts, and every reptile moving upon the earth, and every man. And all things which have the breath of life, and whatever was on the dry land, died. And God blotted out every offspring which was upon the face of the earth, both man and beast, and reptiles, and birds of the sky and they were blotted out from the earth, and Noe was left alone, and those with him in the ark.
Hebrew – And died all flesh that moved on the earth, the fowl and cattle and the beast, and every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth, and all mankind. All which breathed the breath of life, in whose nostrils of all that was in the dry land, died. And was destroyed every living thing which was on the face of the earth; from man to cattle, to the creeping things, and the fowl of the heavens, and they were wiped off from the earth; and was left only Noah and the ones who were with him in the ark.
- Emphasis that animals on DRY land were killed, and man. “Face of the ground,” etc.
- Breath of life seems to indicate lungs here.
NIV – The waters flooded the earth for a hundred and fifty days.
KJV – And the waters prevailed upon the earth an hundred and fifty days.
Alex. LXX – And the water was raised over the earth a hundred and fifty days.
Hebrew – And mighty were the waters on the earth a hundred and fifty days.
1. As we go into chapter 8, we find that after 40 days, the waters are starting to subside.
2. If one flood did everything geologically, there are really only 150 days to build strata; after that the waters have subsided and the Ark has landed.
3. Everything is dead after forty days – if Noah’s flood fossilized anything, it would have to be then. But the upper layers also contain fossils which to not appear to be bloated or half rotted, which is what the warm waters would have produced in very short order.
4. We also see carnivorous animals in the process of devouring other animals in the fossil record. Thus this cannot be animals which lived before the Flood. (ref. Gen. 9:3)
Friday, October 23, 2009 -- Genesis 8:1-7
NIV – But God remembered Noah and all the wild animals and the livestock that were with him in the ark, and he sent a wind over the earth, and the waters receded.
KJV -- And God remembered Noah, and every living thing, and all the cattle that was with him in the ark: and God made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters aswaged;
Alex. LXX – And God remembered Noe, and all the wild beasts, and all the cattle, and all the birds, and all the reptiles that creep, as many as were with him in the ark, and God brought a wind upon the earth, and the waters stayed.
Hebrew – And remembered God Noah and every living thing and all the cattle which were with him in the ark. And made to pass God a wind over the earth and subsided the waters.
- The people who made chapter and verse breaks put one here which does not really belong and the thought and narrative are continued directly from the previous verse in 7:24.
- The word for wind is ‘ruwach’ – the same as the word for ‘spirit,’ meaning ‘to blow, to breathe, to smell, a violent exhalation, a blast, a breath….’
- The LXX Greek uses ‘pneuma’ which is always ‘spirit.’ It is used with ‘theos’ which means ‘god” and so it is God the Spirit which is over, or on, the earth. This is not reference to a wind!
- The verb is not used in the NT. “Brought” in the Alex. LXX. The Spirit of God did something upon the earth and the water stayed. We cannot find the verb translated “brought” in the Greek. (epigagen)
- Psalm 104 needs to be quoted here (from the Hebrew, verses 5-9
He founded the earth on its foundations; not it shall shake for ever and ever. The deep (abyss) as with a garment you covered it; above the mountains stand the waters. From your rebuke they flee; from the sound of your thunder they hurry away. Up go the mountains; down go the valleys to the place which you founded for them. A boundary you have set; not they shall pass over, not shall they return to cover the earth.
Notes on this part of Psalm 104
- “not shall it shake for ever and ever” – normally translated into English as “it shall not be shaken,” but that is not the meaning. The indication is that there is shaking but that the shaking will not go on forever. (Geocentrists often use this verse from the King James to show the Bible says the earth is stable and the rest of the universe revolves about the earth.)
- Geological vertical movements indicated – not the same as the horizontal we experience with our earthquakes today – plate tectonics.
- What was the rebuke, the thunder? It may well be related to the verb we cannot identify as per point #3 above. But as the result of this action, the fountains of the abyss were stopped and the rain ceased. This is also evidently when the vertical movements started, causing the mountains to rise up and the valleys to sink down. This process did not stop with the cessation of the Flood!
- Is the ‘not shall it shake for ever and ever’ a reference to the violent vertical crust movements which formed the mountains and valleys? It happens at this time, at the times of Babel and Peleg, and then again at the end of this age when “every valley will be exalted and every mountain and hill will be laid low.” (Isaiah 40:4)
NIV – Now the springs of the deep and the floodgates of the heavens had been closed, and the rain had stopped falling from the sky.
KJV – The fountains also of the deep and the windows of heaven were stopped, and the rain from heaven was restrained.
Alex. LXX – And the fountains of the deep were closed up, and the floodgates [literal Greek is 'cataracts'] of heaven, and the rain from heaven was withheld.
Hebrew – And stopped the fountains of the deep and the windows of the heavens; and was restrained the rain from the heavens.
- NIV changes the verb, making it seem that the springs and rain sort of stopped by themselves.
- The indication in the older manuscripts is that it was a direct act of God which stopped the Flood. It was not simply a 'running down' effect.
- Both the cataracts, the rains, from heaven and the fountains of the deep were stopped on the fortieth day.
NIV – The water receded steadily from the earth. At the end of the hundred and fifty days the water had gone down.
KJV – And the waters returned from off the earth continually: and after the end of the hundred and fifty days the waters were abated.
Alex. LXX – And the water subsided, and went off the earth, and after a hundred and fifty days, the water was diminished,
Hebrew – and retreated the waters from the earth going and retreating; and diminished the waters at the end of one hundred and fifty days.
- Hebrew is most closely translated – there is a double verb in the original which indicates a wave action of going back and forth.
- The water started going down at the end of forty days and at the end of 150 days, or about five months, the waters were pretty well down. It took a little over four months for 40 days’ worth of flooding to recede enough for the Ark to land on the high ground.
- This means that any fossilization which the standard creation model claims happened in the year Noah was on the Ark actually had to take place in that 150 days.
NIV – And on the seventeenth day of the seventh month the ark came to rest on the mountains of Ararat.
KJV – And the ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat.
Alex. LXX – And the ark rested in the seventh month on the twenty-seventh day of the month, on the mountains of Ararat.
Hebrew – And rested the ark in the seventh month on the seventeeth day of the month on the heights of Ararat.
- The difference in the Alexandrian LXX is related to the fact that they considered Noah and the family and animals to have been on the Ark for one year exactly. Therefore, since they exited the Ark on the twenty-seventh of the second month, it was then written that they entered the Ark on the twenty-seventh day of the second month the year before. The later texts may have changed this. There is a ten day difference, which simply is not important in terms of the devastation of the Flood itself.
- The Flood had started to recede as soon as the rain stopped falling, on day forty-one. It took over four more months, however, for the Ark to touch ground on the heights of Ararat.
- There are strong disagreements regarding whether or not the mountain we know as Ararat in Turkey now is the same place the Ark landed. To date, all possible observations of what may be the Ark have proved false -- they are either rock formations, ice formations, or tricks the light plays with either. With the extreme meltback on Ararat in the last ten years, there has been no sign of any structure there on the mountain. Investigation continues.
- The word "Ararat" comes from the Latin, meaning "altar," and Ararat may simply mean "holy ground" and may not refer to the mountain we know as Ararat today. We know where Noah landed was high ground. We know he built an altar there. The word Ararat may simply refer to this, or it may refer to the name of this one particular mountain, or it may refer to a range of mountains. We simply do not know.
NIV – The waters continued to recede until the tenth month, and on the first day of the tenth month the tops of the mountains became visible.
KJV – And the waters decreased continually until the tenth month: in the tenth month, on the first day of the month, were the tops of the mountains seen.
Alex. LXX – And the water continued to decrease until the tenth month. And in the tenth month, on the first day of the month, the heads of the mountains were seen.
Hebrew – And the waters were going and falling until the tenth month; in the tenth month on the first day of the month were seen the tops of the mountains.
- “tops” or “heads” is “rosh,” meaning to shake (as in the head, since it is easily shaken). "Rosh" is also used as ‘first’ or foremost’ as a matter of rank.
- It may well be that it was not the tops of the mountains that became visible, but their shaking and the crustal movement which was causing them to rise up may have been evident to Noah.
- Since he had already landed on high ground several months before, it is doubtful that this was the first time he had seen the mountains at all.
- Thus, the window in the Ark was something that could at least be peeked out of!
NIV – After forty days Noah opened the window he had made in the ark.
KJV – And it came to pass at the end of forty days, that Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made:
Alex. LXX – And it came to pass after forty days Noe opened the window of the ark which he had made.
Hebrew – And it was at the end of forty days; and opened Noah the window of the ark which he had made.
- This could not have been a ‘peeking out,’ because he, or they, had already seen that the waters had receded and the mountains were rising up! They had seen out the window before this, clearly.
- “window” is “that which is perforated” – so evidently the message is that whatever had covered the window(s) was completely taken away and fresh air and light were finally allowed in the Ark.
NIV – and sent out a raven, and it kept flying back and forth until the water had dried up from the earth.
KJV – And he sent forth a raven, which went forth to and fro, until the waters were dried up from off the earth.
Alex. LXX – And he sent forth a raven [in the Greek the definite article is used and it is 'the' raven]; to see if the water had ceased. And it went forth and returned not until the water was dried from off the earth.
Hebrew – And he sent out the raven; and it went out going out and returning until were dried up the waters from off the earth.
FLOOD TIMELINEFriday, November 6, 2009: Genesis 8:8 - 22
There is a tradition that the beginning of the year then was in the autumn of our year now. Traditionally "All Saints Day," or November 1, is supposed to be the day the Flood commenced. We have no idea if there is any basis for this tradition or not. But if we take November 1 as a starting date, it might help to understand the Flood events in terms of dates as we know them now:
- Flood starts December 17 (in LXX on 27)
- add 40 days for Flood and we are at January 27 ( February 7, LXX)
- from onset of Flood to time when waters had gone down significantly, 150 days – May 17 (or 27 on LXX)
- waters decrease until August 1; see ‘tops’ of mountains
- September 10, window opened, raven out, dove out, dove returns
- September 17 – dove out again, comes back with olive leaf
- September 24, dove out, does not return
- November 1, waters dried up, covering removed
- December 27, earth dry, all leave Ark
Special note on Genesis 8:21
NIV – Then he sent out a dove to see if the water had receded from the surface of the ground. But the dove could find no place to set its feet because there was water over all the surface of the earth; so it returned to Noah in the ark. He reached out his hand and took the dove and brought it back to himself in the ark.
KJV – also he sent forth a dove from him, to see if the waters were abated from off the face of the ground; but the dove found no rest for the sole of her foot, and she returned unto him into the ark, for the waters were on the face of the whole earth: then he put forth his hand, and took her, and pulled her in unto him into the ark.Alex.
LXX – And he sent a dove ["the" dove in the Greek] after it to see if the water had ceased from off the earth. And the dove, not having found rest for her feet, returned to him into the ark, because the water was on all the face of the earth, and he stretched out his hand and took her, and brought her to himself into the ark.
Hebrew – He also sent out the dove from him, to see if had receded the waters from off the earth’s face. But no found the dove rest for the sole of her foot, and she returned to him into the ark, for the waters were on the face of all the earth and he put out his hand and took her and pulled her into him to the ark.
- the birds were tame
- Noah is looking down from where he landed and all is water. There are mountains shifting and shaking, like active islands, but there is no stable land yet.
- Ravens will eat all manner of things, but doves are more picky. This may explain why he chose a dove after the raven, if the raven didn’t come back.
NIV – He waited seven more days and again sent out the dove from the ark. When the dove returned to him in the evening, there in its beak was a freshly plucked live leaf! Then Noah knew that the water had receded from the earth. He waited seven more days and sent the dove out again, but this time it did not return to him.
KJV – And he stayed yet other seven days; and again he sent for the dove out of the ark; and the dove came into him in the evening; and lo, in her mouth was an olive leaf plucked off: so Noah knew that the waters were abated from off the earth. And he stayed yet other seven days and sent forth the dove; which returned not again to him any more.
Alex. LXX – And having waited yet seven other days, he again sent forth the dove from the ark. And the dove returned to him in the evening, and had a leaf of olive, a sprig in her mouth; and Noe knew that the water had ceased from off the earth. And having waited yet seven other days, he again sent forth the dove and she did not return to him again any more.
Hebrew – And he waited yet seven days another, and again he sent forth the dove out of the ark. And came in to him the dove the time of the evening. And behold, an olive leaf newly plucked in her mouth! So knew Noah that had receded the waters from off the earth. And he waited yet seven days another; and sent for the dove, and not did she again return to him any more.
- The water seems to be receding very quickly.
- Olive roots are very sturdy and bits of root will send up shoots from as much as twelve feet under soil. Barry found this out when their family moved into a home that had been built in an old olive orchard in Australia!
NIV – By the first day of the first month of Noah’s six hundred and first year, the water had dried up from the earth. Noah then removed the covering from the ark and saw that the surface of the ground was dry. By the twenty-seventh day of the second month the earth was completely dry.
KJV – And it came to pass in the six hundred and first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried up from off the earth: and Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and, behold, the face of the ground was dry. And in the second month, on the seven and twentieth day of the month, was the earth dried.
Alex. LXX – And it came to pass in the six hundred and first year of the life of Noe, in the first month, on the first day of the month, the water subsided from off the earth, and Noe opened the covering of the ark which he had made, and he saw that the water had subsided from the face of the earth. And in the second month the earth was dried, on the twenty-seventh day of the month.
Hebrew – and it was in the one and six hundred year at the beginning on the one of the month, were dried up the waters from off the earth. And removed Noah the covering of the ark and looked and lo, was dried the face of the earth. And in the month second, on the seven twenty day of the month, was dry the earth.
- ‘removed’ is ‘suwr’ – primitive root meaning ‘to turn.’ Very similar to the word used for ‘gate.’ The implication is that this was some kind of hinged opening that Noah opened, rather than ‘removed.’
- It seems he could only see the mountains from the ‘window’ before he opened the covering, and thus did not know, until that time, that the lower land was still covered with water which was draining off of it.
- Noah himself opened the covering. “Covering” is “mikceh” – meaning ‘a covering, weatherboarding.’ from ‘kacah’ meaning ‘to plump or fill up, implication to cover, clothe in secrecy, to conceal, to hide.’
NIV – Then God said to Noah, “Come out of the ark, you and your wife and your sons and their wives. Bring out every kind of living creature that is with you – the birds, the animals, and all the creatures that move along the ground – so they can multiply on the earth and be fruitful and increase in number upon it.”
KJV – And God spoke to Noah saying, Go forth of the ark, you, and your wife, and your sons, and your sons’ wives with you. Bring forth with you every living thing that is with you, of all flesh, both of fowl and of cattle and of every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth; that they may breed abundantly in the earth, and be fruitful and multiply upon the earth.
Alex. LXX – And the Lord God spoke to Noe, saying, Come out from the ark, you and your wife and your sons, and your sons’ wives with you. And all the wild beasts, as many as are with you, and all flesh both of birds and beasts, and every reptile moving upon the earth, bring forth with thee: and increase you and multiply upon the earth.
Hebrew – And spoke God to Noah, saying, Go out of the ark, you and your wife and your sons and wives your sons with you. Every living thing that is with you, of all flesh, of fowl, of cattle, and of every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth, bring out with you; and let them swarm upon the earth, and bear and multiply on the earth.
- Alexandrian appears to have God telling Noah to multiply, not the beasts! Everything from the Masoretic applies this direction to the animals. Was this a change made in the Masoretic? Animals will multiply without orders; man maybe not if we look at the 'birth control' methods used today. So it may well be that it was mankind that was given the direction to multiply in this verse; if so, then Genesis 9:1 is repeating this directive.
NIV – So Noah came out, together with his sons and his wife and his sons wives. All the animals and all the creatures that move along the ground and all the birds – everything that moves on the earth – came out of the ark, one kind after another.
KJV – And Noah went forth, and his sons, and his wife, and his son’s wives with him: every beast, every creeping thing, and every fowl, and whatsoever creeps upon the earth, after their kinds, went forth out of the ark.
Alex. LXX – And Noe came forth, and his wife and his sons, and his sons’ wives with him. And all the wild beasts and all the cattle and every bird, and every reptile creeping along the earth after their kind, came forth out of the ark.
Hebrew – and went out Noah; and his sons and his wife and wives his sons with him; every animal, every creeping thing and every fowl, all which creeps upon the earth; after their families, they went forth out of the ark.
no comments necessary; this is very clear with no words not understood
Genesis 8:20 - 21
NIV – Then Noah built an altar to the LORD and, taking some of all the clean animals and clean birds, he sacrificed burnt offering on it. The LORD smelled the pleasing aroma and said in his heart: “Never again will I curse the ground because of man, even though every inclination of his heart is evil from childhood. And never again will I destroy all living creatures, as I have done.”
KJV – and Noah builded an altar unto the LORD; and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar. And the LORD smelled a sweet savor; and the LORD said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for man’s sake; for the imagination of man’s heart is evil from his youth; neither will I again smite any more every living thing as I have done.
Alex. LXX – And Noe built an altar to the Lord, and took of all clean beasts, and of all clean birds, and offered a whole burnt-offering upon the altar. And the Lord God smelled a smell of sweetness, and the Lord God, having considered, said, I will not any more curse the earth, because of the works of men, because the imagination of man is intently bent upon evil things from his youth, I will not therefore any more smite all living flesh as I have done.
Hebrew – Then built Noah an altar to Jehovah, and took of every animal clean and of every bird clean and offered burnt offerings on the altar. And smelled Jehovah the fragrance soothing and said Jehovah in his heart, Not will I curse again the ground for the sake of man, because the thought of heart man’s is evil from his youth, and not will I again strike every living thing as I have done.
- We do not know how many animals and birds were in the offering. The altar may have been huge. We have no idea.
- “smelled” is “ruach” which is also translated ‘spirit’ as well as ‘breath’ and ‘life.’ This, again, may be referring to the Spirit of God and not God using His olfactory sense! The five senses belong to the physical creation and God is certainly not limited by them or even subject to them. This verse may well then read, “And the Spirit of Jehovah, the fragrance soothed…” and similar in the other translations.
- EXCEPT that the word for ‘fragrance’ is ‘reyach,’ a derivative of ‘ruach.’ Same root, meaning, ‘breath, scent,’ etc. This appears to be one of the Hebrew word plays, or puns.
- “soothing” is ‘miychoach’ – meaning restful or pleasant, delight, from a word meaning rest or to settle down.
- the Alexandrian ‘having considered’ instead of ‘said in his heart’ makes a lot more sense. His words appear to be spoken, for they are recorded here.
- NIV is quite wrong in translating ‘youth’ as childhood. In the Hebrew culture, ‘youth’ is from the appearance of the first facial hair until the age of 30. Ref. Romans 7.
Special note on this verse: There has been a very ancient argument about the idea that sin is transmitted through the father as Jesus was sinless and had a virgin mother. There are a number of biblical indications that this idea is wrong, and the first is here in Genesis 8:21. The word for 'heart' -- in which there is always a tendency to sin from a person's youth -- is 'leb,' and is 'widely used to freelings, the will, the intellect, the center of anything.' (Strongs 3820) In other words, the indication is that our sin natures are matters of the soul, not matters of the body. They are not a matter of physical inheritance but a matter of the permanent condition of the human race. In Romans 5:14, Paul refers to Adam as "a pattern of the one to come." Not "ones," plural, but "one," who is Christ. In 1 Corinthians 15:45, Christ is referred to as the "last Adam." Why this designation? Because these are the two men on earth who were created with the capacity to sin but not the tendency, which all the rest of us have. If Christ could not have sinned, or been tempted, then the temptations from Satan would have meant nothing and his prayer in the Garden that "not my will, but thine, be done" would have been meaningless. He was tempted, but He did not sin. Adam also was tempted and did not have the inclination to rebel, but chose to anyway. We are told that God judges the heart. That is where rebellion originates and that has nothing to do with physical genetics. Since Adam, and until one is born again in Christ and given a new heart, that tendency to rebel is part of the human condition. (The term 'heart' here is used in the universal way of 'mind, emotions, will, soul' and not the physical four-chambered organ in the body which pumps the blood.)
NIV – “As long as the earth endures, seedtime and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, day and night will never cease.”
KJV – While the earth remains, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease.
Alex. LXX – All the days of the earth, seed and harvest, cold and heat, summer and spring, shall not cease by day or night.
Hebrew – While remains the earth, seedtime and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, day and night not shall cease.
The difference between the ancient Alexandrian and the texts taken from the Masoretic cannot be emphasized enough in this particular verse. Day and night had already been established. The seasons, as we read from the Alexandrian, are new. This indicates an axis tilt of the earth – something which will be given another bit of evidence later in chapter 9. God is saying, in effect, that in the same way that day and night will not cease, from now on the seasons will not cease. In scientific terms this means the axis tilt will never be corrected.
An axis tilt would have initiated the jet streams and the subsequent Hadley cells which drive our seasonal weather systems now.
Why the axis tilt? Possibly the force of the explosions of the ‘fountains of the abyss’ would have caused this. The original land mass was basically all one continent, and was therefore all on one side of the earth, so a massive group of bursting waters would cause the action which required some kind of reaction – very possibly an axis tilt.
Any explosions under water would have had their force buffered by the water, as the following pictures again demonstrate:
OVER LAND -- the exploded material can easily reach 15-20 miles high
vs UNDER WATER -- the force is highly buffered and moderated by the waters
Friday, December 4, 2009: Genesis 9:1-17
NIV – Then God blessed Noah and his sons, saying to them, “Be fruitful and increase in number and fill the earth.
KJV – And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth.
ALEX. LXX – And God blessed Noe and his sons, and said to them, Increase and multiply, and fill the earth and have dominion over it.
HEBREW – And blessed God Noah and his sons and he said to them, Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth.
- God created the earth to be populated by people. This is repeated a number of times. Animals do not have birth control. They don’t need these orders.
- The Alex. LXX includes the phrase, “and have dominion over it.” This repeats the original statement God made to Adam (Genesis 1:26)
NIV – The fear and dread of you will fall upon all the beasts of the earth and all the birds of the air, upon every creature that moves along the ground, and upon all the fish of the sea; they are given into your hands.
KJV – And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, upon all that moves upon the earth, and upon all the fishes of the sea; into your hand are they delivered.
ALEX. LXX – And the dread and the fear of you shall be upon all the wild beasts of the earth, on all the birds of the sky, and on all things moving upon the earth, and upon all the fishes of the sea, I have placed them under your power [literal Greek is 'under your hands'].
HEBREW – And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be on all the animals of the earth and every bird of the heavens; all that moves on the earth, and on all the fish of the sea; into your hands they are given.Notes:
- Dominion is not longer something the animals will cooperate with! Thus we have some attacking people and people attacking many of them in one way or another.
- It is interesting that part of the nephesh creation which cannot sin is now afraid of us, who can.. and for those who don’t seem to be naturally afraid of us, there seems to be a large segment of the human population intent on making them afraid!
- Isaiah 11:6-8 may be showing us the original natural order of things, which Christ will restore during His reign in the Millennium: "The wolf will live with the lamb, the leopard will lie down with the goat; the calf and the lion and the yearling together; and a little child will lead them. The cow will feed with the bear, their young will lie down together, and the lion will eat straw like the ox. The infant will play near the hole of the cobra, and the young child will put his hand into the viper's nest."
- Romans 8:19-22 tells us how things are now: "The creation waits in eager expectation for the sons of God to be revealed. For the creation was subjected to frustration, not by its own coice, but by the will of the one who subjected it, in hope that the creation itself will be liberated from its bondage to decay and brought into the glorious freedom of the children of God. We know that the whole creation has been groaning as in the pains of childbirth right up to the present time."
- Nevertheless, God has placed the animals under our power.
NIV – Everything that lives and moves will be food for you. Just as I gave you the green plants, I now give you everything.
KJV – Every moving thing that lives shall be meat for you; even as the green herb have I given you all things.
ALEX. LXX – And every reptile which is living shall be to you for meat, I have given all things to you as the green herbs [literal Greek is 'herbs of grass'].
HEBREW – Every creeping thing which is alive for you shall be food; even as plant the green have I given you all things.
- Here omnivory is allowed humans. It appears that this is when carnivory and omnivory in animals also began. In Gen. 6:21, God had told Noah to gather food for all the animals and the implication is that all the food was one kind of vegetation or another.
- It is not until the time of Moses that we read certain foods were to be avoided.
- The question always comes up, what about lions and such – what did they eat on the Ark and what when they got off?
- Digestive systems did not need to change – the requirement is for concentrated proteins and amino acids. These must have been available in some kind of plant life which did not make it through the Flood. The closest hints we have today are things like soy beans or the combination of grains and legumes which do give a full, but not concentrated protein.
- So what about after the Ark landed? Those who mock the Bible ask if the lions and such ate the few deer or horses or such. It would not have been that. First of all, Noah took a lot of food on the Ark, so there is a strong possibility that some would have been available immediately after, and for at least a little time after that.
- Now, let’s take a look at the reproductive habits of some rodents:
mice: females sexually mature at 6 weeks; in estrus every 4-5 days; gestation is 18-20 days; babies weaned at 3-4 weeks; average litter is ten.
rats: females sexually mature at 6 weeks; in estrus every 5 days; gestation about 21 days; babies weaned at 3-4 weeks; average litter is ten.
rabbits: females sexually mature at 6-10 months; in estrus every 14-16 days or in the presence of a buck; gestation 31 days; babies weaned about 6-8 weeks; average litter is four
gophers: females sexually mature at 10 weeks; estrus timing varies with location – expect several litters a year; gestation 17-20 days; babies weaned at 4-5 weeks; average litter is five.
Rodents generally do not care if it is dark or light for mating. The number of rodents which got off the Ark might have been rather large. The new omnivores and carnivores would have been able to ‘wean’ off the vegetation diet and onto meats in that way.
NIV – But you must not eat meat that has its lifeblood still in it.
KJV -- But flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, you shall not eat.
ALEX. LXX – but flesh with the blood of life you shall not eat.
HEBREW – but flesh in its life, its blood, not you shall eat.
- Traditionally this has been accepted as a prohibition of cooking the meat in the blood of the animal. All muscle tissue (meat) has some blood in it, so this is not what is being referred to.
- Hebrew culture demanded the killing be done swiftly, usually by cutting the animal’s throat and allowing the blood to drain out. The meat was then considered kosher in terms of the killing.
- The word translated blood is ‘dam,’ but its primarily meaning is that which when shed causes death. The root from which it comes means ‘to be dumb, to stop, to fail, to perish.’
- The other obvious meaning here is more gross – it absolutely prohibits cutting a part off a live animal and eating it. (This has nothing to do with eggs.)
NIV – And for your lifeblood I will surely demand an accounting. I will demand an accounting from every animal. And from each man, too I will demand an accounting for the life of his fellow man. Whoever sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God has God made man.
KJV – And surely your blood of your lives will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it, and at the hand of man; at the hand of every man’s brother will I require the life of man. Whosoever sheds man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed: for in the image of God made he man.
ALEX. LXX – For your blood of your lives will I require at the hand of all wild beasts, and I will require the life of a man at the hand of his brother man. He that sheds man’s blood, instead of that blood shall his own be shed, for in the image of God I made man.
HEBREW – And surely the blood of your lives will I demand, at the hand of every animal will I demand it; and at the hand of man, at the hand of every man’s brother will I demand the life of man. Whoever sheds blood man’s, by man his blood shall be shed; for in the image of God he made man.Notes:
- Capital punishment is demanded for both man and animal when a man is murdered. The Law, written later, shows there was a clear delineation between an accidental killing and murder where two human beings were concerned. However any animal in the later law which killed a person had to be killed.
- The word for blood is again the word ‘dam.’
- In verse 5 there is an interesting difference between the LXX and the Hebrew: the LXX states, “I will require the life of a man at the hand of his brother man,” and the Hebrew states, “at the hand of every man’s brother will I demand the life of man.” So the meaning is not the same as far as who will be the executioner. Later on, in the law given to the Israelites when they were in the Promised Land, the order was that in the case of murder (intentional, premeditated killing of another human being) the closest male relative to the victim was to be the executioner. The term for this person was “the avenger of blood.” (It should be noted that when this command was given by God, there were only three brothers aside from Noah and his wife, so everyone was ‘a brother’ (or a wife….).
- Since Noah is the ancestor of all of us, we are all, in that physical sense, brothers (and sisters) as well.
- The reason for the command is given by God: because man is made in the image of God. This has not changed and is not applicable only to believers. There is nothing anywhere in the Bible indicating there is anyone who has ever lived who is not made in the image of God.
NIV – As for you, be fruitful and increase in number; multiply on the earth and increase upon it.”
KJV – And you, be fruitful, and multiply; bring forth abundantly in the earth, and multiply therein.
ALEX. LXX – But do you increase and multiply, and fill the earth, and have dominion over it.
HEBREW – And you, be fruitful and multiply: swarm over the earth and multiply on it.
Notes:In the Hebrew the word ‘swarm’ is interesting. It is ‘sharats,’ and is a primitive root which means to ‘wriggle’ and hence by implication to swarm or abound. The word is used 11 times in the Old Testament. Once to ‘breed abundantly,’ once to ‘bring forth abundantly,’ once to ‘bring forth in abundance,’ once ‘increase abundantly,’ and six times it is translated ‘creep.’ This is the same word used in Genesis 1:21 regarding the sea animals which creep that will swarm the waters in the Masoretic Hebrew version.
- In the Alexandrian, the Greek word used and translated ‘fill’ is ‘pleros.’ Related words mean ‘fullness, to fill up, full, to accomplish, to fulfill, or to complete or make perfect.’
- The implication of the word chosen by the Hebrew scholars seems to indicate that without men, the earth is not complete.
NIV – Then God said to Noah and to his sons with him: “I now establish my covenant with you and with your descendants after you
KJV – And God spoke unto Noah, and to his sons with him, saying, And I, behold, I establish my covenant with you, and with your seed after you;
ALEX. LXX – And God spoke to Noe, and to his sons with him, saying, And behold I establish my covenant with you, and with your seed after you,
HEBREW – and spoke God to Noah, and to his sons with him, saying, Even I, behold I, am establishing My covenant with you, and with your seed after you.
- This is not just a covenant with Noah, but with the entire human race.
- This covenant is not dependent upon anything any man can do or agree to. This is not an ‘if/then’ statement and contains no provisos.
NIV -- and with every living creature that was with you – the birds, the livestock and all the wild animals, all those that came out of the ark with you – every living creature on earth.
KJV – and with every living creature that is with you, of the fowl, of the cattle, and of every beast of the earth with you; from all that go out of the ark, to every beast of the earth.
ALEX. LXX – and with every living creature [alternate:’ living soul’ is literal Greek] with you, of birds and of beasts, and with all the wild beasts of the earth, as many as are with you, of all that come out of the ark.
HEBREW – And with every creature living which is with you, among fowl, among cattle, and among every animal of the earth with you; from all that out from go the ark, to every animal of the earth.
- The words translated ‘living creature’ are in the Greek “living soul.”
- The word translated ‘creature’ in the three other texts is ‘nephesh,’ or soul.
- The Bible clearly states the large animals have soul.
NIV – I establish my covenant with you: Never again will all life be cut off by the waters of a flood; never again will there be a flood to destroy the earth.”
KJV – and I will establish my covenant with you; neither shall all flesh be cut off anymore by the waters of a flood; neither shall there anymore be a flood to destroy the earth.
ALEX. LXX – And I will establish my covenant with you and all flesh shall not any more die by the water of the flood, and there shall no more be a flood of water to destroy all the earth.
HEBREW – And I have established My covenant with you, and not shall be cut off all flesh again by the waters of the flood; nor shall be ever again a flood to destroy the earth.Notes:
- This does not deny local flooding!
- “Flesh” is “basar” – a primitive root which means to be fresh or to be full; the idea of freshness brings in the idea of a living body. It also is used to mean kin, nakedness, or skin.
NIV – And God said, “This is the sign of the covenant I am making between me and you and every living creature with you, a covenant for all generations to come:
KJV – And God said, This is the token of the covenant which I make between me and you and every living creature that is with you, for perpetual generations:
ALEX. LXX – And the Lord God said to Noe, This is the sign of the covenant which I set between me and you, and between every living creature which is with you for perpetual generations.
HEBREW – And said God, This is the sign of the covenant which I am about to give between me and you, and every soul living which is with you for generations everlasting.
- Again, the word ‘soul’ is ‘nephesh.’
- God’s covenant will never be rescinded.
- Isaiah 24:1 + -- utterly plundered; picture of Tribulation -- “broken the everlasting Covenant” what mean? New Age and homosexuals adopted rainbow as their symbol -- “broken” – ‘parar’ – to break up, usually figuratively, or to violate or to frustrate, to cast off. People today mock Christianity and the things God has done and given us.
NIV – I have set my rainbow in the clouds, and it will be the sign of the covenant between me and the earth.
KJV – I do set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a token of a covenant between me and the earth.
ALEX. LXX -- I set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be a sign of covenant between me and the earth.
HEBREW – My bow I have set in the cloud, and it shall be a sign of a covenant between me and the earth.Notes:
- A rainbow could have easily been seen at any other time before with any spray of water in the sunshine. So the point here is not the invention of the rainbow, but that it will now be in the cloud, or clouds. This means that for the first time it will rain over land during the day.
- Axis tilt is thereby intimated. This agrees with the initiation of the seasons spoken of in the 8:22.
- An axis tilt would result in polar areas being more strongly exposed to either sun for part of the year or being in darkness or near darkness for another part of the year. This would initiate the jet streams and new weather fronts were formed. The atmospheric circulation pattern became more violent. Whereas it probably rained at night over the seas and the land as well, rain in the day would have been a new thing. We found an interesting small article on the net about 'what if' there were no axis tilt. There are many other resources concerning this idea, and all seem to agree that there would only be breezes in the direction of the equator (hot air rises and thus would pull in the air from the north and south, essentially creating only one Hadley cell in the northern hemisphere and one in the southern), and the weather would be uniform spring type of weather.
- God’s promise involving the rainbow was also meant as a reassurance to Noah – he and his family may well have felt a little panicked when the rains were there in the daytime. Too reminiscent of that year on the Ark. But the rainstorms would have broken up relatively quickly and rainbows would have shown through, reminding men of God’s promise.
NIV – Whenever I bring clouds over the earth and the rainbow appears in the clouds, I will remember my covenant between me and you and all living creatures of every kind. Never again will the waters become a flood to destroy all life. Whenever the rainbow appears in the clouds, I will see it and remember the everlasting covenant between God and all living creatures of every kind on the earth.” So God said to Noah, “This is the sign of the covenant I have established between me and all life on earth.”
KJV – And it shall come to pass, when I bring a cloud over the earth, that the bow shall be seen in the cloud: and I will remember my covenant, which is between me and you and every living creature of all flesh; and the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh. And the bow shall be in the cloud; and I will look upon it, that I may remember the everlasting covenant between God and every living creature of all flesh that is upon the earth. And God said to Noah, This is the token of the covenant, which I have established between me and all flesh that is upon the earth.
ALEX. LXX – And it shall be when I gather clouds upon the earth, that my bow shall be seen in the cloud. And I will remember my covenant, which is between me and you, and between every living soul in all flesh, and there shall no longer be water for a deluge, so as to blot out all flesh. And my bow shall be in the cloud, and I will look to remember the everlasting covenant between me and the earth, and between every living soul in all flesh, which is upon the earth. And God said to Noe, This is the sign of the covenant, which I have made between me and all flesh which is upon the earth.
HEBREW – And it shall be when I gather clouds on the earth, then shall be seen the bow in the clouds. And I will remember My covenant which is between Me and you and every living soul in all flesh; and not shall become again the waters for flooding to destroy all flesh. And shall be the bow in the clouds and I shall see it, to remember the covenant everlasting between God and every living soul in all flesh which is on the earth. And said God to Noah, This is the sign of the covenant which I have established between Me and all flesh that is on the earth.Notes:
1. Re-emphasis of both soul and flesh
2. The fact that God uses the verb ‘remember’ does not mean He forgets! It means He will always pay attention to that Promise.
3. In Revelation 4:3 we see God on the throne surrounded with a rainbow and the four living creatures around Him. This would be a constant reminder of the covenant.
Friday, December 18, 2009: Genesis 9:18-29
NIV – The sons of Noah who came out of the ark were Shem, Ham and Japheth. (Ham was the father of Canaan.) These were the three sons of Noah, and from them came the people who were scattered over the earth.
KJV – And the sons of Noah, that went forth of the ark, were Shem, and Ham, and Japheth: and Ham is the father of Canaan. These are the three sons of Noah : and of them was the whole earth overspread.
ALEX. LXX – Now the sons of Noe which came out of the ark, were Sem, Cham, Japheth. And Cham was father of Chanaan. These three of the sons of Noe, of these were men scattered over all the earth.
HEBREW – And were the sons of Noah that went out of the ark Shem, Ham, and Japheth; and Ham, he is father Canaan’s. These three are the sons of Noah, and from them was overspread the whole earth.
- The Bible is definite about these being the only people left on earth – all the world’s population came from Noah’s three sons.
- Genetics – how can this be?
- Three sons, three wives – more to start with than Adam and Eve. Gene pool is still much less than original population before Flood, but nevertheless has enough variation that when mutations are added, we get all that we see now.
- Expressed mutations always have some negative effect, but this still adds to variation.
- All dark-skinned people not from Ham; as we will see in Genesis 10, there are dark skinned people in each of the three branches.
- Genetic research has shown there is a greater amount of variation within any so-called ‘race’ than there is between the ‘races.’ The genetic differences are almost negligible mathematically.
NIV – Noah, a man of the soil, proceeded to plant a vineyard.
KJV – And Noah began to be an husbandman, and he planted a vineyard:
ALEX. LXX – And Noe began to be a husbandman, and he planted a vineyard.
HEBREW – And began Noah, a man of the ground, and planted a vineyard.
- Genesis 5:29 seems to indicate Noah’s father, Lamech, was also a man of the soil. Noah knew what he was doing.
- It takes time for a vineyard to grow – a couple of years at least for grapes to be produced, and more likely about three or four years. Then the wine takes time to ferment, so Noah had been off the Ark some time when this happened.
NIV – When he drank some of its wine, he became drunk and lay uncovered inside his tent.
KJV – And he drank of the wine, and was drunken; and he was uncovered within his tent.
ALEX. LXX – And he drank of the wine, and was drunk, and was naked in his house.
HEBREW – And he drank from the wine and was drunk; and he bared himself inside his tent.
- If Noah was expecting grape juice and got wine, he would have spit it out immediately. He fermented it on purpose and expected the wine
- The Bible never criticizes or says anything negative about this event in Noah's life. On the contrary, he is listed as one of the three God commends for righteousness in Ezekiel 14.
- So why did he get drunk? Possibly air pressure difference after the Flood. The lower the air pressure, the faster and greater the effect of a given amount of alcohol. If Noah was used to drinking a certain amount of wine before the Flood and then drank that same amount of wine after, and the air pressure was not the same, that could explain a lot.
- Why a difference in air pressure? It could have been simply that there was a difference after the Flood, but there is another reason that comes to mind. If Noah was bulding an Ark before the Flood, which he was, it would seem logical to think he was at sea level. He landed on Ararat (although the current mountain 1) was not that high before as it has been an active volcano since and 2) may not even be the place where the Ark landed). If he moved down to the base of the mountain, he would have been at 10,000 above sea level (where it is today), not quite two miles up. Even given the possibility of later uplift of the area, it is doubtful the base of Ararat has uplifted that far, so Noah was at a reasonably high elevation when he had his wine. This would be enough to explain the unexpected drunkenness.
NIV – Ham, the father of Canaan, saw his father’s nakedness and told his two brothers outside.
KJV – And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brethren without.
ALEX. LXX – And Cham the father of Chanaan saw the nakedness of his father, and he went out and told his brothers without.
HEBREW – And saw Ham, the father of Canaan, nakedness his father’s; and he told to two his brothers outside.
- “nakedness” is ‘ervah’ and is translated ‘nakedness’ throughout the OT. This word has come to mean ‘disgrace, blemish, uncleanness.’ In Chaldean it is ‘arvah’ and means ‘nakedness’ as well as ‘impoverishment’ or ‘dishonor.’ ‘Ervah’ can also mean ‘to level.’ The root word also means ‘to uncover’ among other meanings. The idea that it may not indicate full, to-the-skin nakedness needs to be considered here in light of something Noah says later.
- the word used in the Greek for nakedness is ‘gumnos,’ and can mean naked either literally or figuratively, absolutely or relatively. This is the word chosen by the translators of the Hebrew to the Greek.
NIV – But Shem and Japheth took a garment and laid it across their shoulders; then they walked in backwards and covered their father’s nakedness. Their faces were turned the other way so that they would not see their father’s nakedness.
KJV – And Shem and Japheth took a garment, and laid it upon both their shoulders, and went backward, and covered the nakedness of their father; and their faces were backward, and they saw not their father’s nakedness.
ALEX. LXX – And Sem and Japheth having taken a garment, put it on both their backs and went backwards, and covered the nakedness of their father; and their face [was] backward, and they saw not the nakedness of their father.
HEBREW – And took Shem and Japheth the garment and laid it on shoulders both their, and they went backwards and covered the nakedness of their father, their faces backward, and nakedness their father’s not did they see.
- The article “the” in the Hebrew may be very important. Was this a special cloak that Noah had taken off? Again, watch carefully what Noah says to Ham in a bit.
- Special clothes have, through history, been a mark of distinction, office, and honor. Think of the uniform a general wears, or the cloak worn by a judge even today. Consider the clothes worn by the Pope and bishops, as well as priests. Whether it is a matter of a special headdress or an entirely full set of special clothes, there is usually something along these lines to mark leaders or priests. They are symbols of authority.
- Here is a suggestion: when God made special clothes for Adam and Eve, He made them of the skins of animals, meaning they were leather. Adam was the head of the human race. Was that cloak then passed down through the generations as a mark of authority? If so, and if this is what Noah divested himself of (he was the eighth preacher of righteousness), then his nakedness might not have been to the skin, but a divesting of the cloak of authority because of the hot flush from the wine right before he passed out.
- It may not have been Adam's cloak, and we have no way of knowing. But it may have been some other cloak of authority. The Hebrew definite article, which is missing in the other versions, does seem to indicate that the cloak itself played a central role in what happened.
- Did Ham take this cloak, wanting authority for himself and his progeny? He was the youngest, the Bible indicates, and therefore would not have had the authority without usurping it. Again, watch Noah’s words later.
- Shem and Japheth's reaction was at the least one of deep respect for their father.
NIV – When Noah awoke from his wine and found out what his youngest son had done to him,
KJV – And Noah awoke from his wine, and knew what his younger son had done unto him.
ALEX. LXX – and Noe recovered from the wine, and knew all that his younger son had done to him.
HEBREW – And awoke Noah from his wine and he knew what had done to him his son younger.
- Untranslated word in Hebrew -- “…and he knew ach what had done….” “Ach” is most often translated ‘another,’ but can also mean, ‘brother, kindred, like, other, or brotherly.’ Did Noah find out from one of the other brothers what had happened?
- His younger son DID something to him, and this has fascinated other commentators for a long time. There are two other ideas. The first is that Ham had sex with Noah's wife while Noah was unconscious and that Canaan was the result. But this does not explain the cloak and the other brothers' reaction. The idea of incest is based upon the phrasing involved in Noah's nakedness, as phrasing which translates the same in English, but is different in Hebrew, is used later in the Bible to indicate sexual relations.
- The other idea is that Ham initiated a homosexual contact with his father. This is also not fitting with what the Bible says. If that had happened, Noah would not have needed the brothers to tell him something horrible had happened and there would also have been no reason to curse Canaan instead of his father, Ham.
NIV – he said, “Cursed be Canaan! the lowest of slaves will he be to his brothers.”
KJV – and he said, Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren.
ALEX. LXX – And he said, Cursed be the servant Chanaan, a slave shall he be to his brethren.
HEBREW – And he said, Cursed be Canaan; a slave of slaves shall he be to his brothers.
- Why would Noah curse Ham’s son? Possibly because of the cloak? If Ham wanted the authority for his children, then this curse makes sense.
- This is the first of three times the curse on Canaan is pronounced by Noah
NIV – He also said, “Blessed be the LORD, the God of Shem! May Canaan be the slave of Shem.
KJV – and he said, Blessed be the LORD God of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant.
ALEX. LXX – and he said, Blessed be the Lord God of Sem, and Chanaan shall be his bond-servant.
HEBREW – and he said Blessed Jehovah, the God of Shem, and may Canaan be slave his.
- God is blessed here, not Shem himself.
- Indication that Ham may have already strayed from his father’s faith.
- The slavehood of Canaan is repeated.
NIV – May God extend the territory of Japheth; may Japheth live in the tents of Shem, and may Canaan be his slave.”
KJV – God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant.
ALEX. LXX – May God make room for Japheth, and let him dwell in the habitations of Sem, and let Chanaan be his servant.
HEBREW – God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall live in the tents of Shem and shall be Canaan a slave to them.
- “extend the territory of Japheth,” “enlarge Japheth,” “make room for Japheth” – this may be a prophecy regarding the evidence that the descendents of Japheth ended up not only all over the world, but were the source of the discoverers we read about from the 14th – 18th centuries.
- To dwell in the tents, or habitations, of Shem indicates in the actual word meanings to worship either in the temples of Shem or to worship the God of Shem. In this sense we also find the nations coming from the Japheth branch tended to be the ones who not only were more involved with Christianity, but sent out the missionaries.
- Again, Canaan, for the third time, is prophesied to become a slave to the others. The Table of Nations will be the discussion when we meet again after the New Year, when we start to look at who was the ancestor of which cultural and ethnic groups.
NIV – After the flood, Noah lived 350 years. Altogether Noah lived 950 years, and then he died.
KJV – And Noah lived after the flood three hundred and fifty years. And all the days of Noah were nine hundred and fifty years: and he died.
ALEX. LXX – And Noe lived after the flood three hundred and fifty years. And all the days of Noe were nine hundred and fifty years, and he died.
HEBREW – And lived Noah after the flood three hundred years and fifty years. And were all the days of Noah nine hundred and fifty years, and he died.Note: Noah lived as long as the pre-Flood people, indicating that the damage must have been done genetically, via mutations, instead of some other way, such as the conditions they found themselves in after the Flood.
continue to Part 4